Реферат по предмету "Иностранный язык"

Judiasm Essay Research Paper JUDAISM Judaism is

Judiasm Essay, Research Paper


Judaism is all over the world. You can find Jewish people in manycountries. They speak differentlanguages and may be of any color. Anybodywhose mother is a Jew is considered to be Jewish. Jewish history began over four thousand years ago in the MiddleEast. This religion is the oldest typeof monotheism. The founder, Abraham,lived near Ur. He heard a message fromgod to move his people to Canaan, which was the Promised Land. People thatmoved there became known as the Hebrews. Jews have both a Hebrew name and an ordinary name. The Hebrew name is used in the Synagogue andreligious documents. The Synagogue is ahouse of prayer, study, and a community center. The Hebrew word for Synagogue is Beth Ha Knesset meaning house ofmeeting or assembly. The centralfeature of the Synagogue is the Ark, which houses the scrolls of the Torah.

A baby boy is given his name when heis eight days old. When boys turnthirteen, they are considered to be adults, and become responsible for theirreligious duties. This is marked with aceremony called, Bar Mitzvah, meaning ?€œ son of the commandment?€‌. There are three daily prayer sessionsevening, morning, and afternoon. Whenever possible the prayers should be saidat public services but praying at home or somewhere else is just as good. One tradition says that everyone should saya hundred blessings each day and some prayers must be said three times a daywhile others must be said twice. Jewishpeople believe in Sabbath, Sabbath is a day for rest for them. Sabbath begins shortly after sunset onFriday evening and ends late on Saturday night. They do not drive on Fridays or Saturdays because of the Sabbath.

Many Jewish holidays commemorateevents invested with historical and religious meaning. Hanukkah means ?€œdedication?€‌, and itcommemorates the rededication of the temple in Jerusalem after its desecrationby foreign forces. The celebration alsoreaffirms the continuing struggle to live by God?€™s commandments and lead Jewishlives. For eight days, Hanukkah candlesshine in the window to brighten the night. Family and friends come to help light candles in the Hanukiyah(menorah), to eat latkes (pancakes), sufganiyot (doughnuts) and play games ofdreidal. Presents are exchanged, songsare sung, and the story is told of brave, stubborn Judah Maccabee.

Jewish people only eatkosher foods. Only those animal whichboth chew the cud and are clove footed such as cows and sheep can beeaten. Pigs, rabbits and horses areforbidden. Fish must have both fins andscales such as salmon, tout and haddock. Those, which do not such as shellfish and eels, must not be eaten. Special regulations govern the method bywhich an animal or bird is slaughtered for consumption. The expert who performs the job is a?€œshochet?€‌, and the ritual is called the ?€œshechita?€‌ in Hebrew. Any defects which would lead the animal orbirds natural death with in a year because its to be considered notkosher. Some eyes of defects would belesions or tumors in its internal organs. Other examples would be broken or shattered bones and even missinglimbs.

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