Реферат по предмету "Иностранный язык"

Pulizer Prize

образования и науки Украины

Таврический национальный университет

Им. В.И. Вернадского

Факультет иностранной филологии

Кафедра английской филологии

Гура Егор

Реферат на тему: «The Pulitzer Prize»


Специальность 7.030502

«английский и немецкий языки
и литература»

курс 4, группа 42

Симферополь 2001


of the


Administration of the Pulitzer


The list
of used


In the latter years of the 19th century,
Joseph Pulitzer stood out as the very embodiment of American journalism.
Hungarian-born, an intense indomitable figure, Pulitzer was the most skillful
of newspaper publishers, a passionate crusader against dishonest government, a
fierce, hawk-like competitor who did not shrink from sensationalism in
circulation struggles, and a visionary who richly endowed his profession. His
innovative New York World and St. Louis Post-Dispatch reshaped newspaper
journalism. Pulitzer was the first to call for the training of journalists at
the university level in a school of journalism. And certainly, the lasting
influence of the Pulitzer Prizes on journalism, literature, music, and drama is
to be attributed to his visionary acumen. In writing his 1904 will, which made
provision for the establishment of the Pulitzer Prizes as an incentive to
excellence, Pulitzer specified solely four awards in journalism, four in
letters and drama, one for education, and four traveling scholarships. In
letters, prizes were to go to an American novel, an original American play
performed in New York, a book on the history of the United States, an American
biography, and a history of public service by the press. But, sensitive to the
dynamic progression of his society Pulitzer made provision for broad changes in
the system of awards. He established an overseer advisory board and willed it
"power in its discretion to suspend or to change any subject or subjects,
substituting, however, others in their places, if in the judgment of the board
such suspension, changes, or substitutions shall be conducive to the public
good or rendered advisable by public necessities, or by reason of change of
time." He also empowered the board to withhold any award where entries
fell below its standards of excellence. The assignment of power to the board
was such that it could also overrule the recommendations for awards made by the
juries subsequently set up in each of the categories. Since the inception of
the prizes in 1917, the board, later renamed the Pulitzer Prize Board, has
increased the number of awards to 21 and introduced poetry, music, and
photography as subjects, while adhering to the spirit of the founder's will and
its intent.

The board
typically exercised its broad discretion in 1997, the 150th anniversary of
Pulitzer's birth, in two fundamental respects. It took a significant step in
recognition of the growing importance of work being done by newspapers in
online journalism. Beginning with the 1999 competition, the board sanctioned
the submission by newspapers of online presentations as supplements to print
exhibits in the Public Service category. The board left open the distinct
possibility of further inclusions in the Pulitzer process of online journalism
as the electronic medium developed. The other major change was in music, a
category that was added to the Plan of Award for prizes in 1943. The prize
always had gone to composers of classical music. The definition and entry
requirements of the music category beginning with the 1998 competition were
broadened to attract a wider range of American music. In an indication of the
trend toward bringing mainstream music into the Pulitzer process, the 1997
prize went to Wynton Marsalis's "Blood on the Fields," which has
strong jazz elements, the first such award. In music, the board also took tacit
note of the criticism leveled at its predecessors for failure to cite two of
the country's foremost jazz composers. It bestowed a Special Award on George
Gershwin marking the 1998 centennial celebration of his birth and Duke
Ellington on his 1999 centennial year.

Over the
years the Pulitzer board has at times been targeted by critics for awards made
or not made. Controversies also have arisen over decisions made by the board
counter to the advice of juries. Given the subjective nature of the award
process, this was inevitable. The board has not been captive to popular
inclinations. Many, if not most, of the honored books have not been on
bestseller lists, and many of the winning plays have been staged off-Broadway
or in regional theaters. In journalism the major newspapers, such as The New
York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Washington Post, have harvested
many of the awards, but the board also has often reached out to work done by
small, little-known papers. The Public Service award in 1995 went to The Virgin
Islands Daily News, St. Thomas, for its disclosure of the links between the
region's rampant crime rate and corruption in the local criminal justice
system. In letters, the board has grown less conservative over the years in
matters of taste. In 1963 the drama jury nominated Edward Albee's Who's Afraid
of Virginia Woolf?, but the board found the script insufficiently
"uplifting," a complaint that related to arguments over sexual
permissiveness and rough dialogue. In 1993 the prize went to Tony Kushner's
"Angels in America: Millennium Approaches," a play that dealt with
problems of homosexuality and AIDS and whose script was replete with
obscenities. On the same debated issue of taste, the board in 1941 denied the
fiction prize to Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls, but gave him the
award in 1953 for The Old Man and the Sea, a lesser work. Notwithstanding these
contretemps, from its earliest days, the board has in general stood firmly by a
policy of secrecy in its deliberations and refusal to publicly debate or defend
its decisions. The challenges have not lessened the reputation of the Pulitzer
Prizes as the country's most prestigious awards and as the most sought-after
accolades in journalism, letters, and music. The Prizes are perceived as a
major incentive for high-quality journalism and have focused worldwide
attention on American achievements in letters and music.

formal announcement of the prizes, made each April, states that the awards are
made by the president of Columbia University on the recommendation of the
Pulitzer Prize board. This formulation is derived from the Pulitzer will, which
established Columbia as the seat of the administration of the prizes. Today, in
fact, the independent board makes all the decisions relative to the prizes. In
his will Pulitzer bestowed an endowment on Columbia of $2,000,000 for the
establishment of a School of Journalism, one-fourth of which was to be
"applied to prizes or scholarships for the encouragement of public,
service, public morals, American literature, and the advancement of
education." In doing so, he stated: "I am deeply interested in the
progress and elevation of journalism, having spent my life in that profession,
regarding it as a noble profession and one of unequaled importance for its
influence upon the minds and morals of the people. I desire to assist in
attracting to this profession young men of character and ability, also to help
those already engaged in the profession to acquire the highest moral and
intellectual training." In his ascent to the summit of American
journalism, Pulitzer himself received little or no assistance. He prided
himself on being a self-made man, but it may have been his struggles as a young
journalist that imbued him with the desire to foster professional training.



Pulitzer was born in Mako, Hungary on April 10, 1847, the son of a wealthy
grain merchant of Magyar-Jewish origin and a German mother who was a devout Roman
Catholic. His younger brother, Albert, was trained for the priesthood but never
attained it. The elder Pulitzer retired in Budapest and Joseph grew up and was
educated there in private schools and by tutors. Restive at the age of
seventeen, the gangling 6'2" youth decided to become a soldier and tried
in turn to enlist in the Austrian Army, Napoleon's Foreign Legion for duty in
Mexico, and the British Army for service in India. He was rebuffed because of
weak eyesight and frail health, which were to plague him for the rest of his
life. However, in Hamburg, Germany, he encountered a bounty recruiter for the
U.S. Union Army and contracted to enlist as a substitute for a draftee, a
procedure permitted under the Civil War draft system. At Boston he jumped ship
and, as the legend goes, swam to shore, determined to keep the enlistment
bounty for himself rather than leave it to the agent. Pulitzer collected the
bounty by enlisting for a year in the Lincoln  Cavalry, which suited him since there were many Germans in the
unit. He was fluent in German and French but spoke very little English. Later,
he worked his way to St. Louis. While doing odd jobs there, such as muleteer,
baggage handler, and waiter, he immersed himself in the city's Mercantile
Library, studying English and the law. His great career opportunity came in a
unique manner in the library's chess room. Observing the game of two habitues,
he astutely critiqued a move and the players, impressed, engaged Pulitzer in
conversation. The players were editors of the leading German language daily,
Westliche Post, and a job offer followed. Four years later, in 1872, the young
Pulitzer, who had built a reputation as a tireless enterprising journalist, was
offered a controlling interest in the paper by the nearly bankrupt owners. At
age 25, Pulitzer became a publisher and there followed a series of shrewd
business deals from which he emerged in 1878 as the owner of the St. Louis
Post-Dispatch, and a rising figure on the journalistic scene.

in the same year, he and Kate Davis, a socially prominent Washingtonian woman,
were married in the Protestant Episcopal Church. The Hungarian immigrant youth
- once a vagrant on the slum streets of St. Louis and taunted as "Joey the
Jew" - had been transformed. Now he was a American citizen and as speaker,
writer, and editor had mastered English extraordinarily well. Elegantly
dressed, wearing a handsome, reddish-brown beard and pince-nez glasses, he
mixed easily with the social elite of St. Louis, enjoying dancing at fancy
parties and horseback riding in the park. This lifestyle was abandoned abruptly
when he came into the ownership of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. James Wyman
Barrett, the last city editor of The New York World, records in his biography
Joseph Pulitzer and His World how Pulitzer, in taking hold of the
Post-Dispatch, "worked at his desk from early morning until midnight or
later, interesting himself in every detail of the paper." Appealing to the
public to accept that his paper was their champion, Pulitzer splashed
investigative articles and editorials assailing government corruption, wealthy
tax-dodgers, and gamblers. This populist appeal was effective, circulation
mounted, and the paper prospered. Pulitzer would have been pleased to know that
in the conduct of the Pulitzer Prize system which he later established, more
awards in journalism would go to exposure of corruption than to any other

paid a price for his unsparingly rigorous work at his newspaper. His health was
undermined and, with his eyes failing, Pulitzer and his wife set out in 1883
for New York to board a ship on a doctor-ordered European vacation. Stubbornly,
instead of boarding the steamer in New York, he met with Jay Gould, the
financier, and negotiated the purchase of The New York World, which was in
financial straits. Putting aside his serious health concerns, Pulitzer immersed
himself in its direction, bringing about what Barrett describes as a
"one-man revolution" in the editorial policy, content, and format of
The World. He employed some of the same techniques that had built up the
circulation of the Post-Dispatch. He crusaded against public and private
corruption, filled the news columns with a spate of sensationalized features,
made the first extensive use of illustrations, and staged news stunts. In one
of the most successful promotions, The World raised public subscriptions for
the building of a pedestal at the entrance to the New York harbor so that the
Statue of Liberty, which was stranded in France awaiting shipment, could be

formula worked so well that in the next decade the circulation of The World in
all its editions climbed to more than 600,000, and it reigned as the largest
circulating newspaper in the country. But unexpectedly Pulitzer himself became
a victim of the battle for circulation when Charles Anderson Dana, publisher of
The Sun, frustrated by the success of The World launched vicious personal
attacks on him as "the Jew who had denied his race and religion." The
unrelenting campaign was designed to alienate New York's Jewish community from
The World. Pulitzer's health was fractured further during this ordeal and in
1890, at the age of 43, he withdrew from the editorship of The World and never
returned to its newsroom. Virtually blind, having in his severe depression
succumbed also to an illness that made him excruciatingly sensitive to noise,
Pulitzer went abroad frantically seeking cures. He failed to find them, and the
next two decades of his life he spent largely in soundproofed "vaults,"
as he referred to them, aboard his yacht, Liberty, in the "Tower of
Silence" at his vacation retreat in Bar Harbor Maine, and at his New York
mansion. During those years, although he traveled very frequently, Pulitzer
managed, nevertheless, to maintain the closest editorial and business direction
of his newspapers. To ensure secrecy in his communications he relied on a code
that filled a book containing some 20,000 names and terms. During the years
1896 to 1898 Pulitzer was drawn into a bitter circulation battle with William
Randolph Hearst's Journal in which there were no apparent restraints on
sensationalism or fabrication of news. When the Cubans rebelled against Spanish
rule, Pulitzer and Hearst sought to outdo each other in whipping up outrage
against the Spanish. Both called for war against Spain after the U.S.
battleship Maine mysteriously blew up and sank in Havana harbor on February 16,
1898. Congress reacted to the outcry with a war resolution. After the
four-month war, Pulitzer withdrew from what had become known as "yellow
journalism." The World became more restrained and served as the
influential editorial voice on many issues of the Democratic Party. In the view
of historians, Pulitzer's lapse into "yellow journalism" was
outweighed by his public service achievements. He waged courageous and often
successful crusades against corrupt practices in government and business. He
was responsible to a large extent for passage of antitrust legislation and
regulation of the insurance industry. In 1909, The World exposed a fraudulent
payment of $40 million by the United States to the French Panama Canal Company.
The federal government lashed back at The World by indicting Pulitzer for
criminally libeling President Theodore Roosevelt and the banker J.P. Morgan,
among others. Pulitzer refused to retreat, and The World persisted in its
investigation. When the courts dismissed the indictments, Pulitzer was
applauded for a crucial victory on behalf of freedom of the press. In May 1904,
writing in The North American Review in support of his proposal for the
founding of a school of journalism, Pulitzer summarized his credo: "Our
Republic and its press will rise or fall together. An able, disinterested,
public-spirited press, with trained intelligence to know the right and courage
to do it, can preserve that public virtue without which popular government is a
sham and a mockery. A cynical, mercenary, demagogic press will produce in time
a people as base as itself. The power to mould the future of the Republic will be
in the hands of the journalists of future generations."

In 1912,
one year after Pulitzer's death aboard his yacht, the Columbia School of
Journalism was founded, and the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded in 1917
under the supervision of the advisory board to which he had entrusted his
mandate. Pulitzer envisioned an advisory board composed principally of
newspaper publishers. Others would include the president of Columbia University
and scholars, and "persons of distinction who are not journalists or editors."
In 2000 the board was composed of two news executives, eight editors, five
academics including the president of Columbia University and the dean of the
Columbia Graduate School of Journalism, one columnist, and the administrator of
the prizes. The dean and the administrator are nonvoting members. The chair
rotates annually to the most senior member. The board is self-perpetuating in
the election of members. Voting members may serve three terms of three years.
In the selection of the members of the board and of the juries, close attention
is given to professional excellence and affiliation, as well as diversity in
terms of gender, ethnic background, geographical distribution, and in the
choice of journalists and size of newspaper.



More than
2,000 entries are submitted each year in the Pulitzer Prize competitions, and
only 21 awards are normally made. The awards are the culmination of a yearlong
process that begins early in the year with the appointment of 102 distinguished
judges who serve on 20 separate juries and are asked to make three nominations
in each of the 21 categories. By February 1, the Administrator's office in the
Columbia School of Journalism has received the journalism entries -in 2000, typically
1,516. Entries for journalism awards may be submitted by any individual from
material appearing in a United States newspaper published daily, Sunday, or at
least once a week during the calendar year. In early March, 77 editors,
publishers, writers, and educators gather in the School of Journalism to judge
the entries in the 14 journalism categories. From 1964-1999 each journalism
jury consisted of five members. Due to the growing number of entries in the
public service, investigative reporting, beat reporting, feature writing and
commentary categories, these juries were enlarged to seven members beginning in
1999. The jury members, working intensively for three days, examine every entry
before making their nominations. Exhibits in the public service, cartoon, and
photography categories are limited to 20 articles, cartoons, or pictures, and
in the remaining categories, to 10 articles or editorials - except for feature
writing, which has a maximum of five articles. In photography, a single jury
judges both the Breaking News category and the Feature category. Since the
inception of the prizes the journalism categories have been expanded and
repeatedly redefined by the board to keep abreast of the evolution of American
journalism. The cartoons prize was created in 1922. The prize for photography
was established in 1942, and in 1968 the category was divided into spot or
breaking news and feature. With the development of computer-altered photos, the
board stipulated in 1995 that "no entry whose content is manipulated or
altered, apart from standard newspaper cropping and editing, will be deemed

These are
the Pulitzer Prize category definitions in the 2001 competition:

1. For a
distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper through the
use of its journalistic resources which may include editorials, cartoons, and
photographs, as well as reporting.

2. For a
distinguished example of local reporting of breaking news.

3. For a
distinguished example of investigative reporting by an individual or team,
presented as a single article or series.

4. For a
distinguished example of explanatory reporting that illuminates a significant
and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing and
clear presentation.

5. For a
distinguished example of beat reporting characterized by sustained and
knowledgeable coverage of a particular subject or activity.

6. For a
distinguished example of reporting on national affairs.

7. For a
distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, including United
Nations correspondence.

8. For a
distinguished example of feature writing giving prime consideration to high
literary quality and originality.

9. For
distinguished commentary.

10. For
distinguished criticism.

11. For
distinguished editorial writing, the test of excellence being clearness of
style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in
what the writer conceives to be the right direction.

12. For a
distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons published during the year,
characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing, and
pictorial effect.

13. For a
distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color,
which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence or an album.

14. For a
distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which
may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence or an album.

While the
journalism process goes forward, shipments of books totaling some 800 titles
are being sent to five letters juries for their judging in these categories:

1.  For
distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American

2.  For a
distinguished book upon the history of the United States.


3.  For a
distinguished biography or autobiography by an American author.

4.  For a
distinguished volume of original verse by an American author.

5. For a
distinguished book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible
for consideration in any other category.

The award
in poetry was established in 1922 and that for non-fiction in 1962. Unlike the
other awards which are made for works in the calendar year, eligibility in
drama and music extends from March 2 to March 1. The drama jury of four critics
and one academic attend plays both in New York and the regional theaters. The
award in drama goes to a playwright but production of the play as well as
script are taken into account.

The music
jury, usually made up of four composers and one newspaper critic, meet in New
York to listen to recordings and study the scores of pieces, which in 2000
numbered 100. The category definition states:

distinguished musical composition of significant dimension by an American that
has had its first performance in the United States during the year.

The final
act of the annual competition is enacted in early April when the board
assembles in the Pulitzer World Room of the Columbia School of Journalism. In
prior weeks, the board had read the texts of the journalism entries and the 15
nominated books, listened to music cassettes, read the scripts of the nominated
plays, and attended the performances or seen videos where possible. By custom,
it is incumbent on board members not to vote on any award under consideration
in drama or letters if they have not seen the play or read the book. There are
subcommittees for letters and music whose members usually give a lead to
discussions. Beginning with letters and music, the board, in turn, reviews the
nominations of each jury for two days. Each jury is required to offer three
nominations but in no order of preference, although the jury chair in a letter
accompanying the submission can broadly reflect the views of the members. Board
discussions are animated and often hotly debated. Work done by individuals
tends to be favored. In journalism, if more than three individuals are cited in
an entry, any prize goes to the newspaper. Awards are usually made by majority
vote, but the board is also empowered to vote 'no award,' or by three-fourths
vote to select an entry that has not been nominated or to switch nominations
among the categories. If the board is dissatisfied with the nominations of any
jury, it can ask the Administrator to consult with the chair by telephone to
ascertain if there are other worthy entries. Meanwhile, the deliberations

Both the
jury nominations and the awards voted by the board are held in strict
confidence until the announcement of the prizes, which takes place about a week
after the meeting in the World Room. Towards three o'clock p.m. (Eastern Time)
of the day of the announcement, in hundreds of newsrooms across the United
States, journalists gather about news agency tickers to wait for the bulletins
that bring explosions of joy and celebrations to some and disappointment to
others. The announcement is made precisely at three o'clock after a news
conference held by the administrator in the World Room. Apart from accounts
carried prominently by newspapers, television, and radio, the details appear on
the Pulitzer Web site. The announcement includes the name of the winner in each
category as well as the names of the other two finalists. The three finalists
in each category are the only entries in the competition that are recognized by
the Pulitzer office as nominees. The announcement also lists the board members
and the names of the jurors (which have previously been kept confidential to
avoid lobbying).

A gold
medal is awarded to the winner in Public Service. Along with the certificates
in the other categories, there are cash awards of $7,500, raised in 2001 from
$5,000. Four Pulitzer fellowships of $5,000 each are also awarded annually on
the recommendation of the faculty of the School of Journalism. They enable
three of its outstanding graduates to travel, report, and study abroad and one
fellowship is awarded to a graduate who wishes to specialize in drama, music,
literary, film, or television criticism. For most recipients of the Pulitzer
prizes, the cash award is only incidental to the prestige accruing to them and
their works. There are numerous competitions that bestow far larger cash
awards, yet which do not rank in public perception on a level with the
Pulitzers. The Pulitzer accolade on the cover of a book or on the marquee of a
theater where a prize-winning play is being staged usually does translate into
commercial gain.

Pulitzer process initially was funded by investment income from the original
endowment. But by the 1970s the program was suffering a loss each year. In 1978
the advisory board established a foundation for the creation of a supplementary
endowment, and fund raising on its behalf continued through the 1980s. The
program is now comfortably funded with investment income from the two
endowments and the $50 fee charged for each entry into the competitions. The
investment portfolios are administered by Columbia University. Members of the
Pulitzer Prize Board and journalism jurors receive no compensation. The jurors
in letters, music, and drama, in appreciation of their year-long work, receive
honoraria, raised to $2,000, effective in 1999.

the elaborate ceremonies and royal banquets attendant upon the presentation of
the Nobel Prizes in Stockholm and Oslo, Pulitzer winners receive their prizes
from the president of Columbia University at a modest luncheon in May in the
rotunda of the Low Library in the presence of family members, professional
associates, board members, and the faculty of the School of Journalism. The
board has declined offers to transform the occasion into a television

The Who's
Who of Pulitzer Prize Winners is more than simply a roster of names and
biographical data. It is a list of people in journalism, letters, and music
whose accomplishments enable researchers to trace the historical evolution of
their respective fields and the development of American society. We are
indebted to Joseph Pulitzer for this and an array of other contributions to the
quality of our lives.

Topping was appointed Administrator of The Pulitzer Prizes and Professor of
International Journalism at the Graduate School of Journalism of Columbia
University in 1993. After serving in World War II, Professor Topping worked for
10 years for The Associated Press as a correspondent in China, Indochina,
London, and Berlin. He left The Associated Press in 1959 to join The New York
Times, where he remained for 34 years, serving as a foreign correspondent,
foreign editor, managing editor, and editorial director of the company's 32
regional newspapers. In 1992-1993 he served as president of the American
Society of Newspaper Editors. He is a graduate of the School of Journalism at
the University of Missouri.

PUBLIC SERVICE                                    
Washington Post

Notably for the work of Katherine Boo that disclosed wretched
neglect and abuse in the city’s group homes for the mentally retarded, which
forced officials to acknowledge the

conditions and begin reforms.

Staff of Denver Post

For its clear and balanced coverage of the student massacre at
Columbine High School.



 Sang-Hun Choe, Charles J. Hanley and Martha Mendoza
of Associated Press


 Eric Newhouse of Great Falls (Mont.) Tribune

For his vivid examination of alcohol abuse and the problems it
creates in the community.

George Dohrman of St. Paul Pioneer Press

For his determined reporting, despite negative reader reaction,
that revealed academic fraud in the men’s basketball program at the University
of Minnesota.


NATIONAL REPORTING                         Staff
of Wall Street Journal

For its revealing stories that question U.S. defense spending and
military deployment in the post-Cold War era and offer alternatives for the

Schoofs of Village Voice

For his provocative and enlightening series on the AIDS crisis in

FEATURE WRITING                    J.R.
Moehringer of Los Angeles Times

For his portrait of Gee’s Bend, an isolated river community in
Alabama where many descendants of slaves live, and how a proposed ferry to the
mainland might change it.

Paul A. Gigot of Wall Street Journal

For his informative and insightful columns on politics and


Henry Allen of Washington Post

For his fresh and authoritative writing on photography.


John C. Bersia of Orlando Sentinel

For his passionate editorial campaign attacking predatory lending
practices in the state, which prompted changes in local lending regulations.


 Joel Pett of Lexington (Ky.) Herald-Leader



Photo Staff of Denver Rocky Mountain News

For its powerful collection of emotional images taken after the
student shootings at Columbine High School



Carol Guzy, Michael Williamson and Lucian Perkins of
Washington Post

For their intimate and poignant images depicting the plight of the
Kosovo refugees.


Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri
(Mariner Books/Houghton Mifflin)



Dinner With Friends by Donald


 Freedom From
Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945

by David M. Kennedy (Oxford University Press


Vera (Mrs. Vladimir Nabokov) by Stacy Schiff (Random



Repair by C.K. Williams (Farrar,
Straus and Giroux)


Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II
by John W. Dower (W.W. Norton & Company/The New Press)


Life is a Dream, Opera in Three Acts: Act II,
Concert Version by Lewis Spratlan

Premiered on January 28, 2000 by Dinosaur Annex in Amherst, Mass. Libretto
by James Maraniss.

The List
of used resources :

  1. Who's Who of
    Pulitzer Prize Winners
    by Elizabeth A. Brennan;

  2. Joseph
    by Elizabeth C. Clarage; copyright 1999 by The Oryx
    Press. Used with permission from The Oryx Press, 4041 N. Central Ave.,
    Suite 700 Phoenix, AZ 85012, 800 279-6799.

3. www.oryxpress.com.


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