Реферат по предмету "Английский язык"

Kamakura Art

Kamakura Art

1180 a civil war broke out between two military clans, the Taira and the
Minamoto; five years later the Minamoto emerged victorious and established a de
facto seat of government at the seaside village of Kamakura, where it remained
until 1333. With the of power from the nobility to the warrior class, the arts
had to satisfy a new audience: soldiers, men devoted to the skills of warfare;
priests committed to making Buddhism available to illiterate commoners; and
conservatives, the nobility and some members of the priesthood who regretted
the declining power of the court. Thus, realism, a popularizing trend, and a
classical revival characterize the art of the Kamakura period.

Kei school of sculptors, particularly Unkei, created a new, more realistic
style of sculpture. The two Nio guardian images (1203) in the Great South Gate
of the Todai-ji in Nara illustrate Unkei's dynamic suprarealistic style. The
images, about 8 m (about 26 ft) tall, were carved of multiple blocks in a
period of about three months, a feat indicative of a developed studio system of
artisans working under the direction of a master sculptor. Unkei's polychromed
wood sculptures (1208, Kofuku-ji Temple, Nara) of two Indian sages, Muchaku and
Seshin, the legendary founders of the Hosso sect, are among the most accomplished
realistic works of the period; as rendered by Unkei, they are remarkably
individualized and believable images.
Calligraphy and Painting

Kegon Engi Emaki, the illustrated history of the founding of the Kegon sect, is
an excellent example of the popularizing trend in Kamakura painting. The Kegon
sect, one of the most important in the Nara period, fell on hard times during
the ascendancy of the Pure Land sects. After the Gempei civil war (1180-85),
Priest Myo-e of the Kozanji Temple sought to revive the sect and also to
provide a refuge for women widowed by the war. The wives of samurai, even
noblewomen, were discouraged from learning more than a syllabary system for
transcribing sounds and ideas, and most were incapable of reading texts that
employed Chinese ideographs. Thus, the Kegon Engi Emaki combines passages of
text, written with a maximum of easily readable syllables, and illustrations
that have the dialogue between characters written next to the speakers, a
technique comparable to contemporary comic strips. The plot of the emaki, the
lives of the two Korean priests who founded the Kegon sect, is swiftly paced
and filled with fantastic feats such as a journey to the palace of the Ocean
King, and a poignant love story. A work in a more conservative vein is the
illustrated version of Murasaki Shikibu's diary. Emaki versions of her novel
continued to be produced, but the nobility, attuned to the new interest in
realism yet nostalgic for past days of wealth and power, revived and
illustrated the diary in order to recapture the splendor of the author's times.
One of the most beautiful passages illustrates the episode in which Murasaki
Shikibu is playfully held prisoner in her room by two young courtiers, while,
just outside, moonlight gleams on the mossy banks of a rivulet in the imperial

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