Конспект лекций по предмету "Иностранные языки и языкознание"

English language for technical colleges


I. Гласные звуки [i], [i:].
II. Text A: «About myself»,
Text B: «My Biography».
III. Личные местоимения, определенный и неопределенный артикль, множественное число существительных.
Phonetic warm-up (Фонетическая разминка)
Гласный звук [i] При произнесении краткого гласного звука [i] кончик языка находится у основания нижних зубов: оттенок русского звука [и] в словах шить, шило практически совпадает с английским [i]: it, sit, in
Гласный звук [i:] При произнесении долгого гласного [i:] язык продвинут вперед, кончик языка касается нижних зубов, губы несколько растянуты и слегка обнажают зубы. Оттенок русского звука [и] в словах ива, иго, игры, избы практически совпадает с английским звуком [i:].
Сочетания ее, еа -- читаются [i:]. Например, meet, peat.
Долгота звука влияет на лексическое значение слова.
Например: feet (ноги) -- fit (вмещаться), steel (сталь) -- still (все еще)

Exercise A

lead -- lid

if -- it -- tip -- kit

did -- bill

mill -- meal

pill -- peel

keel -- kill

sit -- seat

Exercise В

beat -- bin

it -- seat

steel -- still

feel -- fill -- feet

fit -- eat -- bean

simple -- Pete -- feel -- peel

meet -- meat -- ill -- bill -- steel -- feel Exercise D

be -- been -- bean

did -- deed

pit -- peat

fit -- feet

it -- eat

lid -- lead

Exercise С

bin -- bean

me -- meet -- meat

see -- seat -- seed

meal -- seal -- mean

pea -- Pete -- peat

sea -- see -- meet

bee -- been -- feet

mean -- lean -- keen

Exercise E

I see a sea. I see a clean sheet. I eat meat. I like meat.

I like tea. I make tea. I take tea. I like fine tea. I like fine meals.

People make steel. People make fine steel. People make steel pipes. People make fine steel planes. I like life. I like kind people. I like kind smiles. I feel fine. I smile.


Hello, friends. Let me first introduce myself. My name is Ann or Anya for my friends. My surname or last name is Sokolova. I was born on the 2nd of October in Sochi, Krasnodarsky Krai. This is the most beautiful city in Russia situated on the Black Sea coast. Now I am a first-year student at the Technical Academy. In five years Ill be an engineer.

Now let me describe my appearance. I am tall and slim and have fair hair and blue eyes. My friends say that I am pretty. I think I am just good-looking. I love sports and music. I was very serious about a career in gymnastics when I was in the 5th form. But then I broke my arm and doctors didnt let me go in for gymnastics. I love to listen to modern music and dance. I dance a lot and I hope I am good at it. I also love swimming. I always swim in the Black sea when I visit my parents, my dear family.

I would like to tell you about my family. There are five people in our family. My fathers name is Vladimir Stepanovich. He is a mathematician by education and businessman by profession. My mothers name is Tatyana Petrovna. She is a housewife. She has much work about the house because I have a younger sister. She is a pupil. My sister Natasha is in the fifth form. My grandmother, my mothers mother, lives with us. She is very kind and helps us a lot.

Our family is very friendly, we have many friends. In summer many relatives come to visit us. And, of course, they use a chance to spend several weeks in beautiful Sochi.

In May I have finished school No 5 in Sochi. I did well in all the subjects but my favourite subjects at school were Physics and Computer Science. I also enjoyed English lessons.

I am very interested in learning English because I always wanted to become a programmer or maybe a businesswoman. I also think that the knowledge of foreign languages helps in everyday life and career.

Two years ago I travelled much around Europe. I have visited France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. There the knowledge of English helped me a lot.

As you see, my biography isnt very long yet. But well meet again in the next lesson and Ill tell you more about myself. See you later...


introduce -- представлять, знакомить

Black Sea coast -- побережье Черного моря

a first-year student -- студент(ка) первого курса

region-- область

appearance-- внешность

slim -- стройная

career-- карьера

gymnastics -- гимнастика

mathematician -- математик

housewife -- домохозяйка

several -- несколько

to do well -- зд. успевать

chance -- случай, шанс

kind -- добрый

a lot -- много

the Netherlands -- Нидерланды

the United Kingdom -- Соединенное Королевство (Великобритания)ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY


tall -- высокий

short -- маленького роста

stout -- приземистый, коренастый

slim -- стройный

fat -- толстый

plumpy -- полный

fair hair -- светлые волосы

blonde -- блондин(ка)

brunette -- брюнет(ка)

gray hair -- седые волосы

bold headed -- лысый

short sighted -- близорукий

smart, clever, bright -- умный (я)

stupid -- тупой, глупый

boring -- скучный

fun to be with -- веселый человек

easy to go along -- легкий в общении

quiet -- спокойный

impulsive -- порывистый, импульсивный

aggressive -- агрессивный

rude -- невежливый, грубый

shy, confused -- застенчивый

active -- активный

talkative -- разговорчивый

enthusiastic -- энтузиаст, затейник

Exercise 1.1. Please, introduce yourself. The questions below will certainly help you:

1. What is your name?

2. Where and when were you born?

3. How old are you?

5. Have you got a family?

6. How many people are there in your family?

7. Do you have brothers, sisters, grandparents in your family?

8. Where do you live?

9. Did you study well at school?

10. What school did you finish?

11. Did your teacher of English help you to choose your future profession?

12. What was your favourite subject?

13. What do you like to read?

14. What sport do you go in for?

15. What are you going to be?

16. Do you still live with your parents?

17. Do you have a girlfriend / boyfriend?

Exercise 1.2. Bring a picture of a person you know well (mother, father, grandfather, friend) to class. Show it and describe that person. Use the active vocabulary of the unit.


after Mark Twain

I was born on the 30-th of November 1835 in the village of Florida, Missouri. My father was John Marshal Clemens.

According to tradition some of my great-great parents were pirates and slave traders -- a respectable trade in the 16-th century. In my time I wished to be a pirate myself.

Florida contained a hundred people and when I was born I increased the population by one per cent. It had two streets and a lot of lanes. Both the streets and the lanes were paved (мостить) with the same material -- black mud in wet times, deep dust in dry. Most of the houses were of wood -- there were none of brick and none of stone. Everywhere around were fields and woods.

My uncle was a farmer. I have never met a better man than he was. He was a middle-aged man whose head was clear and whose heart was honest and simple. I stayed at his house for three months every year till I was thirteen years old. Nowhere else was I happier than at his house. He had eight children and owned about fourteen Negro slaves whom he had bought from other farmers. My uncle and everyone on the farm treated the slaves kindly. All the Negroes on the farm were friends of ours and with those of our own age we were playmates. Since my childhood I have learned to like the black race and admire some of its fine qualities. In my school days nobody told me that it was wrong to sell and buy people. It is only much later that I realized all the horror of slavery.

The country school was three miles from my uncles farm. It stood in a forest and could take in about twenty five boys and girls. We attended school once or twice a week. I was a sickly (хилый) child and lived mainly on medicine the first seven years of my life.

When I was twelve years old my father died. After my fathers death our family was left penniless. I was taken from school at once and placed in the office of a local newspaper as printers apprentice (подмастерье) where I could receive board and clothes but no money.

For ten years I worked in printshops of various cities. I started my journalistic life as a reporter on a newspaper in San-Francisco. It was then that I began to sign my publications by my penname Mark Twain.

General understanding:

1. In what state was Samuel Clemens born?

2. What were the great-great parents of Mark Twain?

3. What did Mark Twain want to be?

4. What were the streets and lanes of Florida paved with?

5. How does the author describe his uncle?

6. How many slaves did Mark Twains uncle own?

7. What was the authors attitude toward slavery?

8. Was Mark Twain a healthy boy?

9. When did the author start his career of a writer?


Неопределенный и определенный артикли. Неопределенный артикль a (an) происходит от числительного one (один), определенный -- от указательного местоимения that (тот).

Артикль употребляется:

* перед каждым нарицательным существительным.

Если перед существительным артикль не употребляется, то нужно уметь объяснить, почему.

Артикль не употребляется если перед существительным стоит:

* указательное или притяжательное местоимение,

* другое существительное в притяжательном падеже,

* количественное числительное,

* отрицание no.

Например: This is my book. Its friends book. I have one book.

Упоминая предмет впервые, мы употребляем перед ним неопределенный артикль а (ап). Упоминая этот же предмет вторично, мы ставим перед ним определенный артикль the. Например: This is a book. The book is interesting.

Неопределенный артикль a (an)

употребляется перед единичным, отдельным предметом, который мы не выделяем из класса ему подобных. Неопределенный артикль an обычно стоит перед существительным, которое начинается с гласного звука: an apple, an egg.

Например: I bought a book yesterday. Я купил вчера книгу (одну из многих ей подобных). I have an apple. У меня есть яблоко (одно, какое-то).

Неопределенный артикль a (an) может употребляться только с исчисляемыми существительными, стоящими в единственном числе. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными или существительными во множественном числе неопределенный артикль опускается.

Неопределенный артикль не употребляется:

а) с неисчисляемыми и «абстрактными» существительными:

I like coffee and tea. Friendship is very important in our life.

б) с существительными во множественном числе:

They are students now.

в) с именами собственными:

I told Jane about that.

г) с существительными, перед которыми стоят притяжательные или указательные местоимения:

This car is better than that. My bike is old.

д) с существительными, за которыми следует количественное числительное, обозначающее номер:

I have read page eight of the magazine.

Неопределенный артикль а необходим в конструкциях:

I have a... This is a... I am a... What a fine day! I see a... There is a... He is a...

Определенный артикль the выделяет предмет или предметы из класса им подобных:

The book I bought yesterday was interesting -- Книга, которую я купил вчера, была интересной (это -- конкретная книга, которую говорящий выделяет из класса ей подобных).

Определенный артикль the употребляется как с исчисляемыми, так и с неисчисляемыми существительными, как с единственным, так и с множественным числом.

Например: This is a book. The book is interesting (исчисляемое в единственном числе).

This is meat. The meat is fresh, (неисчисляемое)

These are books. The books are good. (множественное число).

Определенный артикль употребляется:

а) когда известно (из контекста, из окружающей обстановки) о каком предмете (предметах, явлениях) идет речь: Open the door, please. I am going to the Academy.

б) когда речь идет о единственном в своем роде предмете или явлении: The moon is shining brightly.

в) когда существительное имеет ограничивающее определение, чаще всего с предлогом of.

I dont know the name of this pupil.

г) в словосочетаниях типа in the north, to the west, at the cinema, the same, in the country, the rest of the...

д) если перед существительным стоит прилагательное в превосходной степени

This is the most interesting book.

e) перед порядковыми числительными

He lives on the fifth floor.

Географические названия и артикль

С географическими названиями и с именами собственными, артикль, как правило, не употребляется, кроме следующих случаев:

а) с названиями морей, рек, океанов, горных хребтов, групп островов используется определенный артикль: the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the Thames, the British Isles.

б) определенный артикль используется с несколькими названиями стран, областей и городов, (хотя обычно с этими типами названий артикль не используется):

the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Netherlands, the Hague, the Riviera, the Congo, the West Indies

в) определенный артикль используется с названиями стран типа:

the Russian Federation, the United States of America, the United Kingdom.

г) перед собирательным именем семьи The Petrovs -- Петровы

Exercise 1.3. Translate into Russian. Explain the use (использование) of definite (определенных) and indefinite (неопределенных) articles:

1. Last week I met my friend. He was with a young girl. The girl was a student of our Academy. 2. This is a pencil. The pencil is red. 3. She is a teacher. She is our teacher of English. 4. It is a lake. The lake is deep. Its one of the deepest lakes in the world. 5. There are many flowers in your garden. The flowers are beautiful. 6. Did you write a plan? Give me your plan, please. Is this plan effective? 7. The Black Sea is in the South of Russia. 8. This is Mike. He works as an engineer. Mike is a highly qualified engineer. 9. There are some schools in our street. The schools are new. 10. Gagarin was the first cosmonaut of the world. 11. In summer the sky is blue and the sun shines brightly. 12. The Petrovs are very friendly. 13. This is Anns book. I dont like such books. 14. Winter begins in December.

Exercise 1.4. Insert (вставьте) the article where necessary:

1. This... pencil is broken. Give me that... pencil, please. 2. I can see three... boys.... boys are playing. 3.1 have... bicycle.... bicycle is black. My... friend has no... bicycle. 4. Our... room is large. 5. We wrote... dictation yesterday.... dictation was long. 6. She has two...daughters and one...son. Her...son is...pupil. 7. My...brothers... friend has no... dog. 8. This is... tree.... tree is green. 9. She has...ball....ball is...big. 10. I got... letter from my... friend yesterday.... letter was interesting.

Exercise 1.5. Use the articles a, an, the where it is necessary:

1. Yesterday I saw... new film, but... film wasnt very interesting. 2. London is situated on... Thames. 3. Yuri Gagarin was... first man to fly over... Earth in spaceship. 4. My daughter will go school... next year. 5.1 decided to visit... Ivanovs, but they were not at... home 6. In... summer we live in... country. 7. Lomonosov,... great Russian scientist, was born in... small village on... shore of... White Sea. 8.... United States of America is one of... most powerful countries of the world. 9. Is your dress made of... silk or... cotton? 10...Peters brother is... student and we are...pupils.11. What would you like:... apple or... orange? 12. What... strange man he is!

Exercise 1.5. Use the articles a, an, the where it is necessary:

I... Volga is... longest river in... Europe. 2....History and... Literature were... my favourite subjects at... school. 3.What is... nearest way to... Drama Theatre?4....butter and... cheese are made of... milk. 5. Usually I get up at... 7 oclock in... morning. 6...Rostov is situated on... Don. 7. Will you have... cup of... tea? 8.What... good friend you are! 9. We shall go to...cinema... next week together with... Petrovs. 10. This is... book,... book is very interesting. 11. Do you see... sun in... sky today? 12.He is... engineer by... profession.

Exercise 1.6. Insert (вставьте) the article where necessary:

Three men came to... New York for... holiday. They came to... very large hotel and took... room there. Their room was on... forty-fifth floor. In... evening... friends went to... theatre and came back to... hotel very late.

«I am very sorry,» said... clerk of... hotel, «but... lifts do not work tonight. If you dont want to walk up to your room, we shall make... beds for you in... hall.» «No, no,» said one of... friends, «no, thank you. We dont want to sleep in... hall. We shall walk up to our room.»

Then he turned to his friends and said: «It is not easy to walk up to... forty-fifth floor, but we shall make it easier. On... way to... room I shall tell you some jokes; then you, Andy, will sing us some songs; then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories.» So they began walking up to their room. Tom told them many jokes; Andy sang some songs.

At last they came to... thirty sixth floor. They were tired and decided to have... rest. «Well,» said Tom, «now it is your turn, Peter. After all... jokes, I would like to hear... sad story. Tell us... long and interesting story with...sad end.» «... story which I am going to tell you,» said Peter, «is sad enough. We left... key to our room in...hall.»

Образование множественного числа имен существительных.

Множественное число существительных (кроме тех, у которых основа оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -х) образуется путем прибавления к основе окончания -s: a boy -- boys, a trick -- tricks, a pen --pens, a girl -- girls.

Множественное число существительных, основа которых оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -x, а также существительных, имеющих, как правило, окончание -о, образуется путем прибавления к основе окончания -es; a bench -- benches, a bus- buses, a glass -- glasses, a box -- boxes, a potato -- potatoes.

Существительные, оканчивающиеся на (после согласной) во множественном числе имеют окончание -ies: an army -- armies, a fly -- flies, a lady -- ladies. Конечное f(-fe), как правило, меняется на -ves:

a calf -- calves, a knife -- knives, a shelf -- shelves,

a wife -- wives (но: roof -- roofs).

Ряд существительных образует множественное число не по общим правилам:

а) изменяется корневая гласная:

a man - men, a woman - women, a foot - feet, a tooth - teeth, a goose - geese, a mouse - mice

б) добавляется окончание -en:

an ox -- oxen. a child -- children.

в) заимствуются формы единственного и множественного числа из латинского и греческого языков:

a formula - formulae (formulas), a crisis - crises, a criterion - criteria, an index - indices, a bacterium -- bacteria, an axis -- axes

В английском языке есть существительные, которые имеют одну (общую) форму для единственного и множественного числа: a deer (олень) - deer (олени), a sheep (овца) - sheep (овцы), a fish рыба) - fish (рыбы), a swine (свинья) - swine (свиньи).

Некоторые существительные имеют только единственное число: advice, information, news. knowledge, furniture, luggage.

Некоторые - только множественное число, clothes, riches, damages, goods, looks, manners, thanks.


this is -- these are

that is --- those are

there is -- there are

it is -- they are

Exercise 1.7. Decide which of the following nouns are countable (исчисляемые) or uncountable (неисчисляемые):

Time, water, machine, music, snow, word, coffee, money, idea, family, darkness, knowledge, sea hour. tree, silver, meat, happiness, information, speed, book, news, house, friend, milk, student, pen, paper, clothes picture, air, goods.

Exercise 1.8. Read and translate the sentences. Decide which of the underlined nouns (существительных) are countable or uncountable and explain why:

1. We have read all the official papers. There were some sheets of paper on the table. 2.Two coffees, please. I like strong coffee. 3. Give me two glasses. Are they made of glass or plastics? 4. Many thousands of bricks are produced at the factory. Our school is built of brick.

Exercise 1.9. Write down the following nouns in plural.

Box, sheep, place, library, photo, mouse, lady, glass, bush, dress, country, bus, party, wife, day, knife, knowledge, month, pen, hero, goose, company, life, deer, tomato, city, man, play, news, child, fruit, shelf, leaf, foot, fish, woman, money, information.

Exercise 1.10. Write down the following nouns in plural:

A star, a mountain, a tree, a waiter, the queen, a man, a woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, a city, a boy, a goose, a watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy, a sheep, a tooth, a child, an ox, a deer, a life, a tomato.

Exercise 1.11. Write down the following nouns in plural:

this man, that match, this tea-cup, this egg, that wall, that picture, this foot, that mountain, this lady, that window, this knife

Exercise 1.12. Put the following sentences in plural and write them down. Pay attention to the changes of the verb (глагол):

1. A new house is in our street. 2. This story is very interesting. 3. There was a woman, a man, a boy and a girl in the room. 4. In the farm-yard we could see an ox, a sheep, a cow and a goose. 5. Put this knife on that table. 6. Why dont you eat this potato? 7. This strawberry is still green. 8. A yellow leaf has fallen to the ground. 9. Can you see a bird in that tree? 10. Does your tooth still ache? 11. I held up my foot to the fire to warm it. 12. His child studies very well. 13. Is this worker an Englishman or a German? -- He is a Frenchman. 14. What is that childs name? 15. The cat has caught a mouse. 16. I have hurt my foot. 17. The wolf has been shot. 18. He keeps his toy in a box. 19. This man works at our office.

Exercise 1.13. Put the following sentences in plural and write them down. Pay attention to the changes of the verb:

1. This is my stocking. 2. He has a new suit. 3. This metal is very hard. 4. That ship is a Russian one. 5. I heard her voice. 6. His dog does not like bread. 7. The plate was on the table. 8. This town is very large. 9. I was talking to her at the tram stop yesterday. 10. Is that girl your sister? 11. I shall give you my book. 12. This story will be a good one. 13. Is this a good match? 14. The boy put his book on the desk. 15. She took off her hat. 16. That house is new. 17. The pupil put his book into the bag. 18. Is this student coming with us, too? 19. The woman didnt say anything. 20. Does she speak English?

Притяжательный падеж существительных

Examples: The childs toys -- The childrens toys

The boys books -- The boys books

Exercise 1.14. Use the Possessive Case of the Nouns:

Example: The poems of Lermontov. (Lermontovs poems).

1. The toy of their children. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The table of our teacher. 5. The life of animals. 6. The voice of this girl. 7. The new tool of the workers. 8. The letter of Peter. 9. The car of my parents. 10 The room of my friend. 11. The handbags of these women. 12. The flat of my sister is large. 13. The children of my brother are at home. 14. The room of the boys is large.

Exercise 1.15. Translate into English.

1. Это семья моего друга. Отец моего друга -- инженер. Мать моего друга -- учитель. 2. Она взяла книги своего брата. 3. Дайте мне тетради ваших учеников. 4. Вы видели книгу нашего учителя? 5. Вчера дети моего брата ходили в кино. 6. Он показал мне письмо своей сестры. 7. Чья это сумка? -- Это сумка Петра. 8. Чьи это словари? -- Это словари студентов. 9. Принесите игрушки детей.

I. Гласные звуки [е], [?].
II. Text A: «My working day»,
Text B: «Nicks usual working day».
III. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий, порядок слов в английском предложении, типы вопросов.
Гласный звук [е]
При произнесении гласного [е] масса языка находится в передней части ротовой полости. Кончик языка находится у нижних зубов. Губы слегка растянуты. Звук близок к русскому звуку [э] в словах эти, жесть.
Гласный звук [?]
При произнесении звука [?] губы несколько растянуты, нижняя челюсть сильно опущена, кончик языка касается нижних зубов, а средняя спинка языка немного выгибается вперед и кверху.

Exercise A

am -- Ann -- lamp

man -- can -- cat

sat -- hat -- bat

Pat -- rat -- cam

tanned -- tent

fan-- fen

man -- men

pat -- pet

Exercise В

tan -- ten

pan -- pen

bad -- bed

land -- lend

Exercise C

bat -- bet

pet -- net -- red

let -- met

ten -- pen --* men -- hen


Hi again... As you already know, I am a first-year student of the Technical Academy. My parents live in Sochi and I study in Rostov-on-Don so I need some housing. There are two opportunities for me: I can live in a dormitory (a students hostel), or to rent a flat (an apartment).

I decided to rent a flat. To make the rent smaller, I also decided to share my flat with another girl -- Natasha Kozlova. She studies at the Academy, too, and she is my best friend now. Ill tell you more about her later.

Now, let me describe my usual working day. My classes begin at 8:30. So on week-days I have to get up at 7:15.1 dont have an alarm clock and usually my roommate wakes me up and my working day begins. I turn on the radio and do my morning exercises while Natasha takes a shower. I dont take a bath in the morning because I dont have enough time for it. I take a cool shower (thats when I completely wake up), brush my teeth. After that I go back to our room and get dressed. I brush my hair and put on a light make-up. Then we have breakfast. Natasha makes breakfast every Monday, Wednesday and Friday. I have to serve breakfast on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. I love to listen to the latest news on the radio while I am eating and Natasha prefers light music.

We leave the house at ten minutes past eight and walk to the nearest bus-stop. We live rather far from the Academy and it usually takes us about a quarter of an hour to get there by bus. Sometimes when the weather is fine and we have enough time we walk to the Academy. It is very healthy to walk much.

The classes begin at 8:30 in the morning and they end at 2:00 p.m. We have lectures in different subjects. As a rule we have three or four classes a day. Sometimes it is very hard to wait till they end.

Usually I dont miss my classes because I want to pass my exams successfully. But sometimes I do, especially when the weather is fine and the classes are boring.

At 11:50 we have lunch. Thats my favourite time. That is the time to share the latest news and to gossip. My friends and I prefer not to go to the canteen and we often have lunch in a small cafe not too far from the Academy. At 12:30 we have to be back to our classes. During the working day we also have several short breaks that last for ten minutes.

Occasionally I have to stay at the Academy till 5 or even 6 oclock in the evening because I go to the library to get ready for my practical classes or to write a report. As a rule I have no free time on week-days. So by the end of the week I get very tired.

We come home at about 7 oclock in the evening. We eat supper together and share the latest news.

After supper we wash dishes, drink coffee or tea and watch TV. I prefer old comedies and Natasha likes serials or films about travelling. Sometimes Natasha and I go for a walk in the park or visit our friends.

At about eleven at night I go to bed. I like to read something before going to bed and Natasha likes to listen to some music. Sometimes I fall asleep while I am reading and Natasha gets up and switches off the light and says -- Good night!


housing -- жилье

opportunity -- возможность

dormitory, students hostel -- студенческое общежитие

to rent a flat (an apartment) -- снимать квартиру

to share -- делить(-ся)

week-days -- будние дни

alarm clock -- будильник

usually -- обычно

roommate -- сосед по комнате

rather -- довольно

to turn on (off) -- включать, выключать

enough -- достаточно

completely -- полностью, совершенно

to get dressed -- одеваться

to serve -- обслуживать

make up -- макияж

while -- пока, в то время как

to prefer -- предпочитать

healthy -- здоровый, полезный

to miss -- пропускать

successfully -- успешно

boring -- скучный

to gossip -- сплетничать

have to be back -- должны вернуться

break -- перерыв

report -- доклад

share -- делиться

canteen -- столовая


tape-recorder -- магнитофон

to brush ones hair -- причесывать волосы

it takes me... minutes to get to the Academy by bus --у меня уходит... минут, чтобы добраться до Академии на автобусе

cloackroom -- гардероб

upstairs -- наверху, вверх по лестнице

downstairs -- внизу, вниз по лестнице

to miss classes -- пропускать занятия

to pass exams -- сдать экзамены

to do well -- делать успехи, хорошо учиться

for the first (second) course -- на первое (второе) блюдо

to get ready -- подготовиться

as a rule -- как правило

to get tired -- устать

to take pleasure in -- получать удовольствие от...

to look forward to -- ждать с нетерпением

acquaintance -- знакомый

Exercise 2.1. Write one sentence with each word:

1. Usual -- usually -- as usual -- unusual

2. occasion -- occasional -- occasionally

3. to end -- to finish -- to be over

4. to start -- to begin -- to get ready for

5. on Sunday -- at five oclock -- in cafeteria...

6. full time student -- part time student

7. freshman -- second year student -- school graduate

Exercise 2.2. Translate into English:

* быть студентом (студенткой) дневного отделения

* рассказать вам о...

* в будние дни

* просыпаться -- вставать в 7 часов утра

* включать магнитофон

* принимать душ

* чистить зубы

* одеваться

* слушать последние новости

* У меня уходит час, чтобы добраться до института

* ездить на автобусе (троллейбусе, трамвае)

* опаздывать на занятия

* заканчиваться в 15:50 вечера

* пропускать занятия

* сдать экзамены успешно

* время от времени

* подготовиться к занятиям

* как правило

* устать

* приходить домой

* быть дома

* иметь свободное время

Exercise 2.3. Tell about your typical day. The following questions will help you:

1. Do you get up early?

2. Is it easy for you to get up early?

3. Do you wake up yourself or does your alarm-clock wake you up?

4. Do you do your morning exercises?

5. What do you prefer: a hot or a cold shower in the morning?

6. How long does it take you to get dressed?

7. What do you usually have for breakfast?

8. Some people look through newspapers or listen to the latest news on the radio while having breakfast. What about you?

9. When do you usually leave your house?

10. Do you work? If yes, where?

11. How long does it take you to get to your Academy (Institute)?

12. Do you go there by bus/trolley-bus or walk?

13. Where do you usually have lunch (dinner)?

14. What time do you come home?

15. How long does it take you to do your homework?

16. How do you usually spend your evenings?

17. Do you have a lot of free time?

18. Do you play any musical instrument?

19. Are you fond of listening to music?

20. What kind of music do you prefer?

21. Do you collect anything (stamps, records, postcards, coins, matchboxes, etc.)?

22. What time do you usually go to bed?

Exercise 2.4. Tell about:

a) the working-day of your father or mother

b) the usual weekend at home

c) the best day of your life

d) a holiday spent with your friends or relatives (New Years day, Christmas, 8th of March)

e) the working day of famous people (writers, artists, politicians etc.)


Hi, nice to meet you all!

My name is Nick Price. I am a freshman at MIT -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I am not from Boston myself. I was born in Vermilion, Ohio, not far from Cleveland.

My family is not very rich, that is why I cant afford to live on a campus. But it is a rule, that every student must reside during his or her freshman year on the campus. To cover some of the expenses Ive got to work part-time on the campus. I work in cafeteria.

Now let me tell you about my usual working day. I wake up at seven in the morning. My alarm-clock radio is tuned to my favourite radio station. My roommate Todd Hall is a football player. He jogs every morning at 6:30. He is still out jogging when I get up. First I take a cold shower and brush my teeth. Then I dress myself up and rush to work -- to the University cafeteria. I wash dishes and clean the tables. It is not a very interesting job, I know that, but soon Ill be a cook and will earn more. My boss Suzie is very strict but very nice when you do your job properly.

My first class starts at 11:15. The professor is never late for his classes. The lecture hall we sit in has about 100 seats. MIT is a very big school. I think that it is the best school of science and technology in the US.

At 2:00 p.m. I eat lunch at school cafeteria. The food is free for me because I work there. I am a vegetarian and I dont like drinks with caffeine. I prefer cool filtered water or juice.

Then I have two more classes. I need to go to the library right after the classes to do my homework. There I meet my friends and we talk a lot. Twice a week I play basketball with my friends. I swim once a week. Usually after library we go out to the cafe or just sit outside and talk.

I have dinner at 6:00 p.m. at the little Chinese restaurant not too far from the dormitory or I cook myself in the kitchen in my dorm. My favourite food is salami pizza and potato salad.

After dinner I watch TV or play ping-pong with my friends. When it is Friday, we go to the football game.

I usually read before I go to bed. It calms me down after the long day. I guess, thats pretty much it for now. See you later!

General understanding:

1. Where does Nick Price study?

2. What year of study is he in?

3. Is Nick from Boston?

4. Is Nicks family a rich one?

5. What is Nicks job? Do you think he enjoys it?

6. Is Massachusetts Institute of Technology a good school?

7. Where does Nick spend his evenings?

8. What does Nick usually do on Friday nights?


§ 1. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

1. Односложные (и некоторые двусложные) прилагательные и наречия образуют сравнительную степень путем прибавления суффикса -еr, превосходную -- путем прибавления суффикса -est:

high -- higher -- the highest (высокий -- выше -- самый высокий),

big -- bigger -- the biggest (большой -- больше -- самый большой).

Прилагательные и наречия, оканчивающиеся на -у, меняют окончание на -ier и -iest.

Конечная согласная у односложных прилагательных и наречий удваивается.

Например: happy -- happier -- the happiest. hot -- hotter -- the hottest

2. Многосложные прилагательные и наречия, оканчивающиеся на -1у, образуют

сравнительную степень путем прибавления слов more (less),

превосходную -- путем прибавления слов most (least)

interesting -- more (less) interesting -- most (least) interesting,

easily -- more (less) easily -- most (least) easily.

3. Ряд прилагательных и наречий являются исключениями:

good, well (хороший, хорошо) -- better (лучше) -- the best (самый хороший),

bad (плохой) -- worse (хуже) -- the worst (самый плохой)

little (маленький, мало) -- less (меньше) -- the least (наименьший)

many (much) -- more -- the most

far -- farther (further) -- the farthest (furthest)

Существительное, определяемое прилагательным в превосходной степени, всегда имеет определенный артикль: the largest building.

Exercise 2.5. Make up comparative and superlative forms of the listed below adjectives (прилагательные) and adverbs (наречия):

1. large, tall, long, easy, hot, big, cold, nice, bad, strong, short, wide, good, happy, high, low, busy, well, little, many, far.

2. wonderful, necessary, quickly, interesting, comfortable, popular, active, famous, pleasant, beautiful, slowly, clearly.

Exercise 2.6. Open the brackets using the right form of adjectives:

1. Winter is (cold) season of the year. 2. Moscow is (large) than St. Petersburg. 3. Which is (long) day of the year? 4. The Alps are (high) mountains in Europe. 5. Even (long) day has an end. 6. It is one of (important) questions of our conference. 7. Your English is (good) now. 8. Who knows him (well) than you? 9. We have (little) interest in this work than you. 10. Health is (good) than wealth. 11. Your son worked (well) of all. 12. Today you worked (slowly) than usually.

Exercise 2.7. Translate the sentences:

1. This book is not so interesting as that one. 2. The Baltic Sea is not so warm as the Black Sea. 3. The more you read, the more you know. 4. My brother is not as tall as you are. 5. The earlier you get up, the more you can do. 6. Today the wind is as strong as it was yesterday. 7. Your room is as light as mine. 8. John knows Russian as well as English. 9. Mary is not so lazy as her brother. 10. The longer the night is, the shorter the day. 11. The less people think, the more they talk.

Exercise 2.8. Translate the sentences:

1. Лев Толстой -- один из самых популярных писателей в мире.

2. Этот роман интереснее, чем тот.

3. Ваш дом выше нашего? Нет, он такой же высокий, как и ваш.

4. Это -- самая прекрасная картина во всей коллекции.

5. Население Российской Федерации больше населения Великобритании.

6. Он выполнил работу быстрее, чем вы.

7. Австралия -- одна из наименее населенных стран.

8. Его работа лучше вашей, но работа Анны -- самая лучшая.

9. Россия -- самая большая страна в мире.

10. Я живу не так далеко от института, как мой друг.

11. В июле столько же дней, сколько и в августе.

12. Самолет быстрее, чем поезд.

§ 2. Порядок слов в английском предложении

В английском предложении каждый член предложения, как правило, имеет свое определенное место. Так, в простом распространенном повествовательном предложении на первом месте стоит

1) подлежащее, за ним следует

2) сказуемое, далее идет

3) дополнение (беспредложное, прямое, предложное) и затем

4) обстоятельства (образа действия, места, времени).

Например: 1) I 2) gave 3) my brother 3) a book 4) yesterday.

Exercise 2.9. Build the sentences from the words:

a) Is, best, she, friend, my.

b) Learn, different, students, our, subjects.

c) The, is, Russia, the, in, country, largest, world.

d) In, the, we, city, live, a, flat, in, of, center, the.

e) Reading, is, my, of, best, sons, fond, friend.

§ 3. Основные типы вопросов, используемые в английском языке

1. Общий вопрос

Общий вопрос относится ко всему предложению в целом, и ответом на него будут слова yes или по:

Do you like ice-cream? -- Yes, I do.

Can you speak English? -- Yes, I can.

Are you a schoolboy? -- No, I am not.

Have you bought a text book? -- Yes, I have.

Порядок слов в общем вопросе

1) вспомогательный глагол (модальный, глагол-связка),

2) подлежащее (существительное или местоимение),

3) смысловой глагол (или дополнение).

2. Специальный вопрос

Специальный вопрос относится к какому-нибудь члену предложения или их группе и требует конкретного ответа:

What is your name? -- My name is Peter.

Where do you live? -- I live in Rostov.

Порядок слов в специальном вопросе

1) вопросительное слово (what, where, who, when, how и т.д.),

2) вспомогательный глагол (модальный, глагол-связка),

3) подлежащее,

4) смысловой глагол,

5) дополнения,

6) обстоятельства (места, времени, образа действия и т.д.).

В специальных вопросах, обращенных к подлежащему в Present и Past Indefinite, не употребляется вспомогательный глагол do (did) и сохраняется прямой порядок слов:

Who wants to go to the cinema? Who lives in this house?

3. Альтернативный вопрос

Альтернативный вопрос предполагает выбор из двух возможностей:

Do you like coffee or tea? -- Вы любите кофе или чай?

Альтернативный вопрос начинается как общий вопрос, затем следует разделительный союз or и вторая часть вопроса.

4. Разделительный вопрос (Tail Question)

Разделительный вопрос состоит из двух частей. Первая часть -- это повествовательное предложение (утвердительное или отрицательное), вторая, отделенная запятой от первой -- краткий вопрос (tail -- «хвостик»):

You are a pupil, arent you? -- Вы ученик, не правда ли?

Если в повествовательной части разделительного вопроса содержится утверждение, то во второй -- отрицание. Если в повествовательной части -- отрицание, то во второй части, как правило, -- утверждение:

You are a student, arent you?

You dont go to school every day, do you?

Exercise 2.10. Read and translate into English:

1. She is a student.

-- Is she a student?

-- Yes, she is. / No, she isnt.

2. He speaks English well.

-- Does he speak English well?

-- Yes, he does. / No, he doesnt.

3. They have many books.

-- Have they many books?

-- Yes, they have. / No, they havent.

4. The weather was fine yesterday.

-- Was the weather fine yesterday?

-- Yes, it was. / No, it wasnt.

5. We saw a new film yesterday.

-- Did we see a new film yesterday?

-- Yes, we did. / No, we didnt.

6. You can read well.

-- Can you read well?

-- Yes, you can. / No, you cant.

7. There will be five lessons tomorrow.

-- Will there be five lessons tomorrow?

--Yes, there will. / No, there will not (wont).

Exercise 2.11. Put the questions to the following sentences:

1. общие

2. специальные

3. разделительные

1. There is a book on the table. 2. He must work hard today. 3. We are leaving for Moscow next week. 4. We were reading the whole evening. 5. They dont go to work on Sunday. 6. It is not cold today. 7. Ann has already begun to read a new book. 8. We learn English at school. 9. They will show you how to get there. 10. They finished the translation before the end of the lesson. 11. I didnt feel well that evening. 12. It wasnt difficult to do this task.

Exercise 2.12. Read and translate the sentences:.

1. Our family lives in a three-room flat.

-- Does your family live in a three-room flat or in a house?

-- It lives in a three-room flat.

2. They went to the same school.

-- Did they go to the same school or to different schools?

-- They went to the same school.

3. He will read this book tomorrow.

-- Will he read this text tomorrow or next week?

-- He will read it tomorrow.

4. They are playing chess now.

-- Are they playing chess or cards now?

-- They are playing chess.

5. Our teacher has told us to write.

-- Has our teacher told us to write or to read?

-- He has told us to write.

Exercise 2.13. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Вам нравится больше английский язык или французский?

2. Он живет в Ростове или в области?

3. Она его младшая или старшая сестра?

4. Студенты уже сдали экзамены или нет?

5. Петровы поедут летом на юг или на север?

6. Ваш друг учится в академии или в университете?

7. Он знает ее лучше или вы?

Exercise 2.14. Write down alternative questions to the following sentences:

1. Our teacher knows several foreign languages. 2. He has graduated from our University last year. 3. We shall go to Samara next week. 4. They are working in our garden. 5. I have just read this book. 6. I took this book from my friend. 7. He likes reading books. 8. She has many relatives abroad. 9. They were in many countries. 10. Russia is the largest country in the world.

I. Гласные звуки [а:], [], дифтонги [э], [ei].
II. Text A: «My Academy»,
Text В: «Moscow Slate University».
III. §1. Безличные и неопределенно-личные предложения.
§2. Неопределенные местоимения some, any, отрицательное местоимение по и их производные.
Гласный звук [а:]
При произнесении английского гласного [а:] рот открыт почти как для русского звука, но язык отодвигается дальше назад и книзу и лежит плоско. Кончик языка оттянут от нижних зубов. Губы не растянуты и не выдвинуты вперед.
Гласный звук []
При произнесении краткого гласного [], губы немножко растянуты, язык отодвинут назад, несколько глубже, чем для русского звука [а]. Кончик языка находится у нижних зубов, напоминает русский звук [а] в словах камыш, сады, валы.
Дифтонг [э]. Ядро звука -- гласный похожий на русский звук в слове это. Скольжение происходит в направлении нейтрального гласного с оттенком звука.
Дифтонг [ei]. Дифтонг, ядром которого является гласный, а скольжение происходит в направлении гласного. Произнося дифтонг необходимо следить за тем, чтобы ядро не было таким широким, как русский гласный [э], а второй элемент не превращался в русский звук [й].

Exercise A

care -- dare -- rare

date -- may -- pay

car -- far -- bar

fare -- fair -- hair

lay -- hay -- Ray

half -- calf -- bath

Exercise D

part -- park -- fart

Exercise С

us -- bus

cart -- barter -- shark

tape -- hate -- bate

tub -- mud

spark -- bath -- mark

mate -- plate -- Kate

must -- sum

park -- raft -- plant

late -- fate -- rate

humble -- tumble

Exercise В

brave -- maple -- main

sun -- hunt

mare -- air -- pair

pain -- name -- day

trust -- last

Hello again! Now let me tell you about my Polytechnical Academy. I am really glad that I study here. It is one of the finest countrys higher educational institutions. Many famous people have graduated from my Academy, and not only engineers or scientists, but many outstanding writers, actors, showmen and politicians. Studying at our Academy gives a solid background in all spheres of knowledge and prepares for practical work.
Our Academy is quite large and old. It was founded in the 19th century by the famous Russian inventor Vladimir Komarov. First, it was a small department of a large University, but later it was rearranged into an independent institution. Nowadays it is a large school where more than 5,000 students are currently enrolled. About 3,000 are full-time students, like me, and the rest are part time-students. There are also about 150 graduate students. They conduct independent research work and have pedagogical practice.
The course of study at my academy lasts five years. There are many faculties in my academy. Here are some of them: the faculty of industrial automation and robotics, the faculty of plastics, the faculty of machine tools and the faculty of metalworking.

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