Ministry ofEducation and Science of Ukraine
G.S. SkovorodaKharkiv National Pedagogical University
Institute ofPostgraduate Education
Department ofEnglish Philology
STYLISTICPOTENTIAL OF TENSE-ASPECT VERBAL FORMS IN MODERN ENGLISH
1. Theoreticalbackground of the research of stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms
1.1Perspective of the research
1.2 Theanalysis of the stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms in modernEnglish by foreign linguists
1.3 Theanalysis of the stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms in modernEnglish by home linguists
2.Theanalysis of stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms in modern English
2.1 The typesof transpositions of verbal forms as stylistic means in the category of tense
2.2 The typesof transpositions of verbal forms as stylistic means in the category of aspect
3.Methodologicalrecommendations for teaching of tense-aspect verbal forms in English languageusing their stylistic potential
Moreand more linguists and specialists in study of literature attract theirattention to problems of Stylistics and Stylistics itself is divided into somespecial disciplines which tend to differentiate. But at the same time as wellas in any other science we can observe the integration of the processes that isthe intensification of different parts of knowledge and appearance of newmodern synthetic sections. New problems have been involved in the sphere ofstylistic researches, a lot of data and programs have been studied and newaspects of language factors and features have been discovered. Our interest inthese points is the first reasonof the appearance of our paper.
Fromthe point of our view English Grammar is the most difficult subject for studynot only for students but everyone who wants to be a professional philologist.That why the second reasonfor writing of our paper is the complicationsof the descriptions of some difficult grammar areas especially «verb-section»in the frames of simplicity.
Theverb as a party of speech is the most capacious grammar category. In verbalword with all variety of its denotations, meanings and stylistic potentialsthere are combinations with different grammar forms, organic connections and associationswith tenses and aspect, which characterize all verbal system in the whole. So thethird reasonof our paper is to analyze some verbal factors and featureson the «brighter grammar» level with taking into our consideration someinterrelations between grammar forms, their functional content and stylisticpotential in contexts.
Itwill be very important to mark that General Morphology (non-stylistic) treatsmorphemes and grammatical meanings expressed by them in language in general,without regard to their stylistic value. Stylistic Morphology, on the contrary,is interested in grammatical forms and grammatical meanings in the stylistic sphere,explicitly or implicitly comparing them with the neutral forms common for allsublanguages.
Thenature, the essence of stylistic phenomena is radically different in caseswhere morpheme, word, phrase themselves are analyzed as chosen out of theparadigm from the cases when we try to explain the effect produced by givenpatterns of the combining units in speech and text. When we use the form «aren't»instead of «have not or am / is / are not», the sentence «John here?»instead of «Is John here?», or one meaning instead of another all could alsoemploy. This is what illustrates the paradigmatic branch of Stylistics.
Inthe utterances: I ask you / I pray you / I beseech you – we can observethe interrelation between the meanings that is «pray» is stronger than «ask»;«beseech» is the strongest of all three. They are the systematicbranch of Stylistics.
Stylisticmorphology, both paradigmatic and systematic, has not yet been given fullattention, especially with regard to English language. It is the fourthreason for our paper.
Thus,in the paper we turn our attention to the stylistic meanings associated withtenses and aspect having already dealt with their grammar forms.
Topicalityof our problem includes some point. The role of some scholars indevelopment of Stylistics is very high especially in Stylistic Grammar but inthe whole, not specifically: Palmer, Hornby, Quirk, Yule, Skrebnev, Block andothers. There are only a few monographs devoted to Stylistic Morphology as aspecific researches. In our days the interest in this problem increases becausewe can see some questions and problems which are not studied enough, namely:
- connotations of tense-aspect verbal system conveyed by verbalforms in different contextual situations including transpositions and emotionalexpressiveness;
- lexico-grammatical categories in the peripheral field of aspectand expantion them in the light of stylistic potential;
- idiomatic constructions with different meanings in contexts;
- how to use morphological means of Stylistics and expend theirstylistic potential;
- the deep work with tense-aspect verbal forms the main aim of whichis to help students understand contexts of English authors more intensive andintensive.
Thesegrammatical problems are very important, especially on the pedagogical level inthe frames of student’s study, and they were presented by Rayevska N.M., Morokhovskiei A.N.,Efimov L.P. and others.
Innovation.We present new types of tables, diagrams descriptions, illustrativematerial to reach the high level of students knowledge and to elicit theirenthusiast in further investigations. New examples from the original literaturequoted from Dickens, Collins, Austen and other authors not only confirm thegrammatical investments of name scholars in solution of practical value ofStylistic grammar for real seminar studies. In our paper we actualize the topicproblem by showing that the general research area-stylistic potential of Englishverb – is important, central, interesting, problematic.
Tense-aspectverbal form are used to express subtle stylistic nuances and impretions inspoken English, in distributions of light and shade of verbal paints; with thepurposes to go over from one style to another.
Thewhy the topic of our paper is determined as «stylistic potential oftense-aspect verbal forms in modern English».
The object of our study is «The Tense-Aspectverbal form as many aspectual factor in Theoretical English Grammar».
The subject of our study is «Stylistic potentialof tense-aspect verbal forms in modern English».
Language Level: Tense-Aspect verbal forms as constructivegrammar means for two types of transpositions and some expression from theperipheral field in the frames of Spoken English.
Language material: Original text,dictionaries, thesauruses, monographs, history sources, theoretical grammartextbooks by English, Ukrainian and Russian authors, some pieces of informationfrom Internet, a lot of material from Foreign Philology Faculty of G.S. ScovorodaKharkiv National Pedagogical University (lectures, books, English LanguageEncyclopedia), newspapers, journals.
Theoretical Value: The central interest inour paper is connected with very specifical but important for realunderstanding of spoken English problems in the frames of TheoreticalEnglish Grammar, connected with tense-aspect verbal forms, their features,constructions and behavior in specific environment. Analyzing tense-aspectverbal forms from these positions we have marked connotative aspect andemotional overtones as important semantic components of spoken English thatis stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal form. All these ideasare based on principle which are related by Theoretical English Grammar on theuniversity level.
Practical value: The discussion of the tense-aspect verbalforms and their stylistic potential in modern English has been made concrete bythe use of illustrative examples in the practical part of our paper, quotationsfrom the original literature, tables, diagrams, comparison with Ukrainian andRussian.
Main methods for researching of our topic problem:
Methodsof scientific research used in our paper have been connected with the generaltrends in the science of language, namely:
– criticaland contextological analysis of some original texts with the aim to present thesamples and the cases of practice of stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbalforms in modern English;
– thehistorical approach that is retrospective exposure of native and worldexperience;
– elicitingfacts, samples and generalization them in borders of the positive and realpractice;
– philologicalobservations using especially two types of transpositions and principles of theperipheral field so that to expand the borders of the traditional TheoreticalEnglish Grammar and obtain some cases to wide students knowledge;
Inthe light of our philosophy and philological observations, critical andcontextological analysis of some original contexts our results were obtained onthe edge of some linguistic sciences: Stylistics (Decoding), FunctionalGrammar, Syntax, Functional and Communicative Linguistics, Theory ofInterpretation of Text, Theory of Contextual Situation and other.
Atthe end our paper, there are some ideas for teachers to help them ofexercises and activities for students.
FurtherReading List has been given for teachers who wants to expand their languageskills by the way of additional investigations.
1.Theoretical background of the research of stylistic potential oftense-aspect verbal forms
1.1 Perspective of the research
Interestin our main problem, how it originated, how it works and develops, has existedin remote ages. Chronologically at once we pay our special attention toindividuals, whose contribution to the subject – Stylistic Potential ofTense-Aspect Verbal Forms in Modern English – has been well-known. In Table1 that we have completed for students we present some names of philologist,titles of their works, years who began to research this problem many years agoup to now. [38; 43; 47]
Ourshort overview we begin with William Lily (1468–1522) who wrote «Ashort Introduction of Grammar» and was the first between others in thissphere. Then in 1580 «A Treatise for Declining Verb» was written by ClaudiusHolyband (1580). After that William Bullokar (1530–1609) created thefirst grammar of English «Pamphlet for Grammar» in 1586, a short sketch based on Lily’s Lating Grammar.
Naturallyin this years the struggle for national grammar and language began and JohnWallis (1616–1703) wrote Gramatica Liguae Anglicanae (1649) forforeign students that was held in high esteem but has only produced since theeighteenth century. John Walker’s Ryming Dictionary of the English Language(1732–1807) is used in works on stylistic problems by our contemporaryscholars. Next was Lindley Murray (1745–1826) who published his EnglishGrammar, adapted to the different classes of learners, and became thebest-known scholar with the nickname «Father of English Grammar».
In1853 year Macel Claude Victor Andre (1793–1875) published his major workLanguage as a Means of Mental Culture and International Communication, writtenin English, where he showed his position that «impression» – stylisticbackground of grammar – should always precede «expression». Then aGrammar of Spoken English with a lot of stylistic featureswas presented by Palmer Harold (1923). His friend who became effectivelyPalmer’s «crown prince» – Hornby Albert (1898–1979) – developed ideasand projects in his pedagogical grammar Guide to Pattens and Usage inEnglish (1954) where the author put the concept of «grammar time» on thefirst place: what type of grammar time we need to use for expressing ofdefinite temporal relationship, positions and states.
Inthis time Eckersley C.E. (1893–1967) wrote Brighter Grammar (1953)were he tried to approach English grammar in the same «scientific» way and toshow that it is not a collection of dull, dead words but a living thing.
Alot of works on Linguistics which are used by Russian and Ukrainian scholarswere written by Ottor Jesprsen (1860–1943), especially his monumental ModernEnglish Grammar (1909–1949); The Philosophy of Grammar (1924), Efficiencyin Linguistic Change (1943) and others. Edward Sapir wrote in a Danishnewspaper:
«Your(Jespersen’s) work has always seemed to me to be distinguished by its blend ofexact knowledge, keenness of analysis, ease and lucidity of STYLE, andby an imaginative warmth that is certainly not common in scientific writing»[43; 95].
Thereality can be seen in the three kilos of paper of A Comprehensive Grammarof English Language (1985) written by Randolph Quirk and his team.In our paper we will exploit Chapter 4 «The Semantics of the VerbalPhrase». We have completed Table 1 for those students who wish tocontinue their researches this problem in the historical frames.
Throughoutof centuries English Scholar created the system of the Morphology Grammar whereEnglish verbal forms as the basis of Grammar have gradually been presented,studied and researched as a great stylistic potential. Being placed inunusual syntagmatic environmentwhich change their canonized grammaticalcharacteristics and combinability, English Verbs acquire stylisticsignificant.
1.2The analysis of the stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms in modernEnglish by foreign linguists
Themotivation for Gearge Yuri’s classic work Explaing English Grammaris to describe and explain the basic forms of the present and past tenses, perfectand progressive aspects and main structures of the English verb complex.Drawing on his experiment we want to add some interesting points from hisideas.
Accordingto G. Yuri’s system [32; 54–84] in order to describe the different forms of averb, we need to talk about tense, which often has to do with thelocation of a situation in time, and aspect, which characterizes the wayin which that situation is perceived or experienced. The author affirms thatEnglish has two distinct tense forms, present and past tenses, and twodistinct forms for aspect, perfect and progressive aspects, which aremarked on the verb. Giving unusual table with the basic structure of Englishverb forms G. Yuri underlines that the sense of team «tense» in Englishis not based on simple distinctions in time.
e.g. And today I woke with splittingheadache.
TomorrowI fly to London for a big meeting.
Yesterdaythe land tells me my rent's going up.
Thepresent form here ties the situation described closely to the situation ofutterance. The past tense form makes the situation described more remote fromthe situation of utterance. Situation in the future are treateddifferently they are inherently non-factual. The author means that theverb form that is traditionally called «future tense» is actuallyexpressed vie a modal verb which indicates the relative possibility ofthe event.
Ifwe look inside the situation we shall talk about aspect [32; 63–68]. Aspectis divided by author into two parts:
1. Lexicalaspect (stative and dynamic verbs);
– progressiveviewed from the inside in progress;
– perfectviewed from outside in retrospect.
Tenseis the location of a situation, aspect – the inside of a situation.
Inparts «Meaning in Contexts» [32; 68–72] Yuri G. shows how to use thestylistic potential of tense and aspect in the practical approach. There is amajor qualitative difference between studying the components of English Verband studying how to use them basically. When we construct a piece of connected speechor writing, whether in monologue or dialogue, we are constantly tapping thelexical and grammatical resources of English verb to find of making ourcomposition and particular effect. More clearly Peter Verdonk marks inhis «Stylistics», Oxford, 2002:
«Styleinvolves a choice of form without a change of message.
Itincludes the motives for choice and its effect. If all differences in form arecorrelated with differences in meaning, then the style of a piece of writing issimply its meaning. The work may stand out because of its meaning, or theauthor may be exceptionally skilled in finding the right words for his meaningand we take pleasure in his art, but the wrong choice would have meantsomething less – they would not conveyed the meaning» [40; 7–8].
Describinghow to use deferent styles in a magazine article, news reports, academicwriting, narratives, spoken discuses and others Yuri G. gives some easyexplanations:
– informationthat is treated as part of the «background» will tend to be expressed inthe past tease;
– informationthat is current concern, in the «foreground» will be expressed in the presenttense;
– backgroundscene-stting, particularly in stories, is often expressed in the pastprogressive;
– ongoingcurrent situations are described in the present progressive;
– viewingrecent changes from the current situation is typically expressed by perfectaspect.
Followingthe description of basic verbal forms, Yuri G. conveys not only specificfeatures of verbal forms and structures according to tenses and aspects, butincludes a piece of information on how meanings of verbal forms can be shapedbf context and communicative purpose – stylistic potential of verbal forms.
Writtenin a clear style and natural, intelligible language [38; 41] «AComprehensive Grammar of the English Language» is presented by RandolphQuirk and his team in 1986. «In the fourth chapter we examine the semanticsof the verb phrase, and in particular of the finite verb phrase», wrote QuirkR. [29; 175]. Some points from this interesting material about time, tense andaspect will be very useful for discussion in our paper. The authors give us alot of tables and diagrams, examples with the main aim to explain verbal systemclearly and lucidly. Beginning from the present tense the authors line downthat on the semantic level of interpretation «present» is the mostgeneral and unmarked category.
e.g.:John spends a lot of money. (true for past, present, future)
cf.:John spent a lot of money. (true for past only)
Theauthors prefer to follow those grammarians who have treated «tense» onlyas a category realized by verb inflection, and in their Grammar they donot talk about «future» [29; 176] as a formal category but they do say aboutexpressing the semantic category of future time. We can add the samepoints of view given by T.A. Rastorguieva and L.S. Barkhudarov.[31; 28]
e.g.: Today isMonday, and tomorrow is Tuesday.
Whatare you doing tomorrow?
Thesemantic categories of past, present, future apply not so much to time, as tohappenings which take place in time, and which are denoted by verbs.
e.g.: Mary hopedfor success. (refers to «a past hope of Mary)
Peterknows a great deal. (refers to Peter’s present knowledge)
Thehome team will be defeated, (refers to «a future defeat of thehome»)
Theauthors shall distinguish different categories under the title ofsituation types that is they talk of dynamic (count) and stative(noncount) meaning rather then dynamic and stative verbs. This isbecause one verb may shift from one category to another, for example,
– thestative meaning of «have» is «possess»;
– thedynamic meaning of «have» is «eat».
e.g.: The chair hasbeautiful carved legs quite frequently. (has=possess, that is «having carvedlegs» is a state)
Wehave dinner at Maxim’s quite frequently.
(havedinner= eat, that is «having dinner» is an event)
Allthese verbs are divided into dynamic and stative verbs, which arepresented in two tables. We mean, that these two tables are not convenient forteaching and studying and we have replaced and reconstructed them according toour require (Tables 2–3).
Meaningsof the simple present tense with reference to present time can bedivided into:
l.The state present, or so-called «eternal truths» or «timeless present»:
e.g.: Honestly isthe best policy.
Twoand three is five.
2.The instantaneous present implies that event has little or no durationand is completed approximately at the moment of speech:
– commentaries,demonstrations, special exclamatory sentences, performatives.
e.g.:Black passes the ball to Fernanders…
Herecomes the winner!
3.Special non present uses of the present tense:
– theso-called historical present with stylistic effect, whichconveys something of the dramatic immediacy of an eye-witness account. It isfound with verbs of communication: say, tell, etc, and the result – theinformation communicated – is still operative.
e.g.: The Biblespeaks…
Historicalpresent describes the past as if it is happening now.
4.The simple present in fictional narrative: the events narrated by meansof the historical present are real, but narrated by fictional «historicalpresent» are imaginary. It is the stylistic effect.
e.g.:Millinson enters. The girls immediately pretend to be workinghard… (we can present the event of the play before our eyes)
Meaningsof the past tense with reference to past time (Table 3) combine twofeatures:
a)the event / state must take place in the past with the gap between itscompletion and the present moment;
b)the speaker or writer must have in mind a definite time at which the event /state took place («last week, in 1932, several weeks ago, etc) but stylisticallythe past tense itself means the definite past time.
e.g.:Did you lock the front door? – an immediate situation.
Byrondied in Grees. – historical statements.
Romewas not built in a day. – presupposing.
Thehabitual and state meanings can be paraphrased by means of«used to» (transference, transposition, transmission) used to live
e.g.:In those days we – in the counry.
Meaningsof the past tense with reference to the present and futuretime:
– thephenomenon «backshift» (Did you say you have / had no money?)
– theattitudinal past (Do/Did you want to see me now?)
– thehypothetical past (if-clauses, expectations – «I wish I had amemory like yours».)
Toadhere to the main point from «A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language»it is essential to exhibit some facts from chapter «Perfective andprogressive ASPECT.» [29; 31]. The term «aspect» refers to agrammatical category which reflects the way in which the verb action is regardedand experienced with respect to t i m e. Thetwo aspect constructions of English: perfective and the progressive,can be seen as realizing a basic contrast if aspect between the action viewedas complete (perfective), and the action viewed as incomplete,i.e. progressive. The morphological realization of tense and syntacticrealization of aspect are very closely connected. Quirk R. marks thatapproximately 10% of finite verb phrases are only perfective. Perfectiveaspect indicates ANTERIOR TIME – time preceding whatever timeorientation is signaled by tense or by other elements of the sentence or its context.
Wemay now focus on the difference between two constructions:
1.State leading up to the present:
e.g.:That house has been empty for ages. – the state continues at least up tothe present.
cf.:That house was empty for ages.-but now it has been sold.
2.Identifinite events in a period leading up to the present:
e.g.:Have ever been to Florence? – the indefinite past.
cf.:Did you go to florence? – last summer! – we have to imagine the definitepast.
3. Habit event (recurrent) in a period leading up to thepresent:
e.g.: Mr Terry has sung in this choirever since he was boy. – the period identified must continue up to the present.
cf.: The journal was published every month from 1850to 1888. – the definite past.
Progressive aspect stylisticallymore frequent in conversations than in scientific discourse. A count ofa large number of verb constructions has indicated that less then 5% of verbphrases are progressive, whereas 95% are nonprogressive [32; 29].
The meaning of the progressive can be separatedinto 3 components:
1. The happening has duration: Joan is singing well.
2. The happening has limited duration: Joan was singing well.
3.Incompletion – thehappening is notnecessary complete:
e.g.; Joan was reading the novel yesterday evening.
According to the chapter the progressive aspect can bedivided into:
1. Stative progressive:
e.g.: Weare living in the country. – temporalresidence.
cf.: We live in the country.-permanent residence.
2. Event progressive:
e.g.: The referee is/was blowing of whistle. – repeatedblowing.
cf.: The referee slows his whistle. – only one time!
3. Habit progressive:
e.g.: At that time she was having regular singinglessons.
Whenever Isee her, she’s working in thegarden.
The«temporal frame» of the present progressive is normally «now»,recurrent or imaginary, inaccordance with the interpretation ofthe habitual, the historical, the fiction meanings.
Theauthors give a piece of information about the perfective progressive meaningthat the features of the progressive and the perfective aspects are combinedin the same phrase. This problem will be debated by Ukrainian and Russianscientists.
R.Quirk and his team give a lot of information about time, tense and aspect; thetables in which English verbs are divided into stative and dynamic types;difficult theme as «aspect» is presented in clear and lucid language. There aresome problems which are debated up to now, for example, «the reality of theperfective progressive».
1.3The analysis of the stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms in modernEnglish by home linguists
N.N. Rayevska[3; 30]is awell-known Ukrainian (Kiev)scholar who specialized in the study of English language and wrote twomonographs:
1. The Essays on Stylistic Grammar of Modern English (1976) 
2. Modern English Grammar(1976) 
These monographs introduce the results of N.N. Rayevska’sphilological observations which convey theoretical grammar problems of verbalsystem and their stylistic possibilities and potentialities. All these featuresare very useful for insight into writer's context and understanding of theirartists' intentions. In Modern English Grammar N.N. Rayevskaaccentuates:
«A major question in learning the grammar of the English verbis therefore to look for the difference of distribution various context, liguisticor situational, where each verb – form occurs» [30; 137]. The resultaccording to these points can be seen in Table 4–8.
The results according to the functional and semantictranspositions can be seen in Tables 9–10.
Some words about trabsposition itself.
Transposition is a divergense between the traditionalusage of a neutral word and its situational (stylistic) usage.
Transposition of verbs is more varied than otherparts of speech. It is explained by a greater number of grammatical categoriesthe meanings of which may be transposed. One of peculiar features of Englishtense forms is their polysemantism: thesame form may realizevarious meanings in spoken English and other styles.
Deviation from the general meaning makes verbs stylisticallycoloured. Twotypes of transposition are presented in our table:functional and semantic – whereinherent resources and devices of– English verbs create and establish a lot of subtle meaningful nuances bymeans of Morphology.
N.N. Rayevska throws light upon thenature of the functional and semantic peripheral field of the verbal voice andmarks off it in her diagram where paradigmatic verbal forms and language unitsof the other levels are unified and consolidated together in thefunctional-semantic field of the voices hip. As innovation we have completed Table11 «The Stylistic Potential of Peripheral Elements of the PassiveVoice in Modern Enflish» and mean that it will enrich the verbal system andhelp and stimulate students’ intensification of its usage in the frames ofTheoretical English Grammar.
Presenting the functional-semantic field of the aspectualsystem of the English Verb the author lines down the categores of theaspect and tense as organically correlated: the form of the aspect isthe form of the tense (asin Quirk’s system) but she means there aretwo types of the aspect in English Grammar which are itroduced as theoppositions:
l. the common aspect (speaks, spoke, willspeak);
2. the continuous aspect (is speaking,was speaking)
N.N. Rayevska puts forward several interesting andstimulating ideas for the further philological observations that according toher point of view are very productive and prospective:
1. Development of grammat co-ideomatical structures.
2. Morphological correlations of interlevel units andinclusion them in the peripheral field of verbal forms.
3. The Phrasiological System in its unity with garammatical functioning.
4. Paculiarities of lexical combinability and realization of tense-aspectforms in the community of their syntactical structures and others (a lot ofideas!)
The field arragement of tense-aspect: system for philologicalobservations expands the frames of the traditional English Grammar and helps toreveal a lot. of stylistic colours and their shades.
In her turn the author of Stylistics of Modern English (StylisticDecoding), I.V. Arnold writes:
«Stylistic potential is possibility to addan idiomatic powerto the language and express various subtle distinctions of thoughts andmeanings». [4, 124]
The author divides transposition into two types and distributethis material into two groups, Table 1.4 that have been complited by ourteam as visual material for studatns:
1. Transposition with emotional expressiveness.
2. Transposition with functional-stylistic character.
In our practical part-the second part of our paper – we givea lot of examples from original literature using this table and presenting someconnotations of tense-aspect system conveyed by verbal forms:
– historical presence;
— continuous verbal forms;
– popular language;
– modal verbs, particles, idioms;
– repetitions of grammar forms;
– archaic verbal forms.
Two types of transposition [Table 1.4] described by I.V. Arnoldare used in our practical part with the aim to expand the frames of their usageas obvious and visuial examples from English original literature.
Y.M. Skrebnev in his book Fundamentalsof English Stylistics (lines down that «Stylistic Morphology, bothparadigmatic and syntagmatic, has not yet been given full attention, especiallywith regard to English that has very few inflections, and most grammaticalmeanings are expressed analytically». [33; 84]The author puts inthe forefront the problems of synonymy and transposition:
– variability of verbal forms;
– morphological difference between verbal forms;
– abolishing the morphlogical differentiations between SubjunctiveII of the verb «to be» and the past indicative;
– «ungrammatical» usage of verbal forms;
– «praesens historicum» and others.
Y.M. Skrebnev represents Syntagmatic and ParadigmaticMorphology as means of the sylistic stocks. The author treats practicallyall the essentials of stylistics, gives numerous samples of text analysis,teaches the students to interpret and find adequate verbal account forstylistic impressions.
Satisfactory results in the philological training of studentscan be achieved only on condition that students have firmly, mastered the basicprinciples if every linguistic disciplin, stylistics included.
In the next monograph «English Stylistics» written by A.N. Morokhovskeiit is accentuated that Stylistics is a synthetico – linguisitic subject and thelanguage is researched as the system with a lot of elements that united into:
1. Expression means on all linguistic levels.
2. STYLISTIC DEVICES ON ALL COLLOQUIAL LEVELS.
3. Functional correlations with a society and environment.
In chapter «Stylistic usage of the verbal means» theauthor underlines that all stylistic possibilities of English verbs are veryrich if we take into account a variety of verbal forms vebals and their rangeof meanings, tinges and nuances. The author considers that the tense-aspectforms can be presented in the contexts by the ways of making and creating theirsyntactic correlations (intercommunications) between forms, structures, constructionsand grammar categories. And it is not disputed because the – verbalformations and» arragements are the main dynamic means and devices of stylisticexpressions in literary, puplicistic and colloquial styles.
In this monograph these are a lot of interesting facts fromdifferent connotations in the grammatical, semantic and polysemanticrealisations.
e.g. Douglas: Cris is doing all right, Basil.
Greff: Is that true? Are you doing allright, Cris?
In the question we can catch of feel either ironic or warmintonation but not duration expressed by the continuous tense. The forms of thepresent indefinite and present continuous are used for the transmission offacts, actions, events which have illsion of the Result but not duration as infollowing:
e.g.: Thanks for breakfast. I’m catching the trainhome. We can mart; that the modality of the obligation is shown by means of thecontinuous tense.
1. The categories of the English voice also can be inthe role of stylistic means and devices:
e.g.: Since to love is better to be loved. Itis the structure with antithesis.
2. e.g.: I did help him.
«did» is «still, nevertheless, however».
e.g.: They did go.
«did» is «the last, finally, in the end».
The emphatic «DO» is a strong stylistic feature thatin its correlation with the verbal predicate creats the emphatic expression.
3. Implicit agent in scientific style is used in theintroduction of the facts.
e.g.: It is understood / mentioned / assumed / believed / known…
For students we have completed two tables (13,14) withinteresting facts and examples:
– how to use stylistic potential of the Imperetive mood;
– semantic and stylistic peculiarities expressed by theforms of the Subjunctive mood.
In monograph Stylistics of English Language theauthors show that the diapason of stylistic devices is very high. We have markedonly s some of them but very expressive categories of time, voice and mood. Allthese means can be used only in context. We consider that the subject «TheTheory of Context» must be included in the syllabus for students from theforiegn language faculties. Our tables (13–14) which were completed forstudents as HOs on the Theoretical Grammar will help them to realise this garammaticalmaterial in practical frames.
In his very scientific monograph «Modification of VerbalForms in Modern English» A.I. Dorodnyh analises a lot of works writtenby outstanding philologists, native and foreign, and gives his own system ofEnglish verb, as follows:
1. Category of time: Past Nonpast
was working is working
2. Category of temporary retrospectiveness:
has worked works
had worked worked
will have worked will work
has been working is working
3. Category of temporary perspectiveness:
will work works
would work worked
will have worked have/hasworked
will be working isworking
The author’s verbal system is very individual and interestingfor those students and teachers who wants to expand their scientific skills in Philological,sphere and continue to research some discussible problems, namely:
l. What is the main factor of the evolution in the verbalsystem that can be presented in the social community?
2. Is there the future category or future tense?
Can you as a teacher find more examples to argue yourdiscoveries and explain them to students more popularly then in the monographby A.I. Dorodnyh, and others.
M.Y. Blokh in his A Course in Theoretical EnglishGrammar underlines:
«Language is means of forming and storing ideas as reflectionsof reality and exchanging them in the process of human intercourse. Language issocial by nature: it is inseparably connected with the people who are itscreators and users; it grows and develops together with development society».
Grammatical time, or tense, is one of the typical functionsof the finite verb. The author describing the present tense as opposed to thepast tense accentuates the stylistic features and peculiarities in thelinguistic circumstances, specifically «the historic present»,
If we say, «Two plus two makes four», thelinguistic implication of it is «always; at the moment of speech».
If we say, «I never take his advise», we mean «atthe present time».
If we say «In our millennium social formations changequicker then in the previous periods of man's history’, the linguistic,temporal content of it is «in our millennium including the moment of speech»… Hereworthy of note are utterances where the meaning of the past tense stands incontrast with the meaning of some adverbial phrase referring the event to thepresent moment.
The seeming linguistic paradox of such casesconsists exactly in the fact that their two-type indications of time, one verbal-grammatical,and one adverbal-lexical, approach the same event from two oppositeangles. It is the transpositional use of the present tense with the pastadverbials, either included in the utterence as such, or expressed in itscontectual environment. The stylistic purpose of this transposition, knownunder the name of the «historical present» is to create a vividpicture of the event reflected in the utterance.
e.g.: Then he turned the corner, and what do you thinkhappens next? He faces nobody else than Mr. Greggs accompanied byhis private secretary!
The «historical present» will be included in our practicalpart that is why we want to describe this subject in details.
The Historical Present
The English «historical present» is usually described as away of making storytelling events more vivid.
e.g.: Last night Blackie (cat) comes with thishuge dead rat in her mouth and drops it right at ray feet.
These utterence has an adverbial of time «last night»establishing the time of the event in the past, while the actions aredescribed in the present tense. The actual time is remote from the time ofutterence, but the actions described are presented as if they coincide with thetime of the utterence.
e.g.: My parents worked in the field all day. AndI work in the fields all day like them…
The so-called «historical present» is characteristic ofpopular narrative style (or fictional present or fictionalnarrative). In Older English, the simple present was used more widely withreference to a present event which would now be described by use of the presentprogressive (durative):
e.g.: I go = I’m going.
The «historical present» describes the past as if it ishappening now; it conveys something of the dramatic immediacy ofan eye-witness account.
e.g.: I couldn’t believe it! Just as we arrived, up comesBen and slaps me on the back as if we’re life-long friends. «Come on,old pal», he says. Let me buy you a drink! I’m telling you, I nearlyfainted on the spot».
A very different use of the present tense in reference to thepast is that found with verbs of communication:
e.g.: The ten o’clock news says that there's to bestorm. Such verbs include also verbs like understand, hear, learnwhich refer to the receptive end of the communication process.
e.g.: I hear that poor Mr. Simpson has goneinto hospital.
These sentences would also be acceptable with the simple pastor present perfective, but the implication of the present tense seems to bethat although the communication event took place in the past, its result – theinformation communicated – is still operate.
e.g.: The Book of Genesis speaks of the terrible fateof Sodom and Gomorrah.
Thus, although the Book of Genesis wsa written thousandsyears ago, it still «sreaks» to us at the present. The notion that the past canremain in the present also explains the optional use of the present tense insentences reffering to writers, composers, artists, etc., and their extantworks.
e.g. In The Brothers Karamazov, Dostoevsky draws/drewhis characters from sources deep in the Russian soul.
It is something more than a figure of speech to suggest thatauthor is still able to speak to us through his works.
The present tense can even be used, without respect to anypatticular work, for general artistic characterization of the author, butbiographical details of the artist's life must be normally reported through thepast tense. Hence there is an interesting contrast between:
e.g.: Murasaki write/wrote of life in 11th centuryJapan.
cf: Murasaki wrote in 11th century Japan.
The simple present is usually used in NewspaperHeadlines.
e.g.: «NO SELL-OUT» SAYS P.M.
TRADE UNIONS BACK MERGER
There is a close connection between the «historical present» ofabove, and the simple present as used in the «Fictional narrative». Theonly difference is that whereas the events narrated by means of the «historicalpresent» are REAL, those narrated by the «fictional historicalpresent» are IMAGINARY.
This is stylistically marked in contrast to the normalconvention of the past tense for store-telling.
e.g.: The crowd swarms around the gateway, and seetheswith delighted anticipation; excitement grows, as suddenly their heromakes his entrance…
A special exception in the use of the present tense in stagedirection.
e.g.: Millinson enters. The girls immediately pretendto be working hard. William assures a businesslike air, picks up twofolders, and makes for door.
Here the present tense is used by convention, as if torepresent the idea that events of the play are being performed before our eyesas we read the script.
In his monography M.Y. Blokh debates a point howto use shall or will future and marks «The view that shall and willretain their modal meanings in all their uses was defended by such a recognizedauthority on English grammar of the older generation of the twentieth centurylinguists as O. Jespersen. In our times, quite a few scholars, amongthem the successors of Descriptive Linguistics, consider these verbs as part ofthe general set of modal verbs, «modal auxiliaries», expressing the meanings ofcapability, probability, permission, obligation, and the like».
The modal nature of the «shall/will + Infinitive» combinationscan be shown by means of equivalent substitutions.
e.g.: He who does not work neither shall he eat.
cf.: He who does not work must not eat.
As regards the second question-the aspect of the verbin modern English – M.Y. Blokh picks up two main variants: thecontinuous and the perfective.
l. The continuous forms are aspective because reflecting theinherent character of the process named by verb, they do not, and cannot, denotethe timing of the process. The opposition constituting the correspondingcategory is effected between the continuous and non-continuous forms.
2. The true nature of the perfect is temporal aspectreflected in its own opposition, which cannot be reduced to any otheroppositions. The categorial member opposed to the perfect will be named «imperfector non-perfect».
The author underlines that the aspective meanings can beinbuilt in the semantic structure of the verb and, on the other hand, theaspective meanings can also be represented in variable grammatical forms andcategories. At this point of our consideration, we should differ the categorialterminology and the definitions of categories.
A category, in normal use, cannot berepresented twice in one and the same word-form. The integral verb-form cannotdisplay at once more then one expression of each of recognized verbalcategories, though it does give a representive expression to all the verbalcategories taken together through the corresponding obligatory featuring. So inthe verbal system of English there are two temporal categories:
– the past tense as a direct retrospectiveevaluation of the time of the process;
– the future tense – the timing of % heprocess in a prospective evaluation.
There are two aspective categories:
– the continuous aspect;
– the perfect aspect.
N.Y. Blokh describes the aspective categories backed onthe works of H. Sweet and O. Jespersen. On the ground thataspective category is constituted by the opposition of the continuous forms ofthe verb to the non-continuous forms, they present some sentences with while-clauses:
1. While I was typing, Mary and Tom were chatting inthe adjoining room.
2. While I typed, Mary and Tom were chatting in the adjoiningroom.
3. While I was typing, Wary and Tom chatted in the adjoiningroom.
4. While I typed, they chatted in the adjoining room.
We have to feel the difference in semantic connotations. Themeaningful difference consists exactly in the categorial semantics of theindefinite and comtinuous: while the latter shows the action in the veryprocess of its realization, the former points it out as a mere fact…The stylisticpotential of the continuous aspect is in its possibility to create a numberof actions going on simultaneously in descriptions of scenes implied by the narration.
e.g.: Standing on the chair, I could see in through the barredwindow into the hall of the Ayuntamiento and in there it was as it hadbeen before. The priest was standing, and those who were leftwere kneeling in a half circle around him and they wereall praying. Pablo was sitting on the big table infront of the Mayor's chair with his shotgun slung over his back.»
(E. Hemingway., p. 154)
In his A Course in Theoretical English Grammar M.Y. Blakhdescribes and explains the category of retrospective coordination (theperfect aspect) that has been interpreted in linguistic literature in fourdifferent ways. In Table 15 «The Perfect Aspect» (The History of theProblem) we present a piece of information about the authors, foreign andnative), who presented the perfect aspect as a problem. We present 5subdivisions according to the ways of the grammatical interpretations:
1. «The tense view».
2. «The aspect view».
3. «The tense-aspect blend view».
4. «The time correlation view».
5. «The strict categorial view» by M.Y. Blokh.
This table is very convenient for students who wants to getpost-graduated education and continue their philological observations in theframes of Theoretical English Grammar.
Grammatical material from the textbook written by M.Y. Blokhis very visual and inportant for students. There is no doubt that its numerousparticular propeties, as well as its fundamental qualities as a whole, will befurther exposed, clarified in the course of continued linguistic research.
I.B. Khlebnikova in her book «Essentialsof English Morphlogy» underlines that the items selected for study in this bookrepresent the most debatable parts of English Morphology. It concerns,first of all, the grammatical categories of the verb. The author marksthat «the verb is a two-face Janus»: when it is viewed as the carrier of somegeneralized, abstract grammatical meaning, it belongs to morphology; when it isviewed from the point of view of the position it occupies in relation todifferent word-classes, it belongs to syntax. Taking into account all these wecan find a lot of reasons to present «the third face of our Janus-verb» – stylisticfeatures that are included in our research. The author in chapter IV «TheGeneral Organization of Morphlogical Forms» presents «Structural1 Principles ofOrganization» – The Macrosystem of the English Verb», organized in the table (Table16). Being guided by Ukrainian, Russian, American and European linguisticschools – A. Hill, B. Strangle, O. Jespersen, L. Barkhudarov, G. CURME, G.N. Vorontsovaand others – I.B. Khlebnikova expoands the characteristic features of ananalitical forms of English verb. They are nine. Between them we can find thedescriptions of:
- an auxiliary as a verbwhich has no lexical meaning of its plus infinitive, participle I, II;
- a collocations asindivisible in grammatical sense, though its components are separate words; itis idiomatic in grammar sense;
- auxiliary verbs realizedthe «present-past» dichotomy:
have done – had done;
is speaking – was speaking;
shall do – should do;
- verb as the whole macrosystemand in the central – microsystem of tense-aspect;
- the abbreviation of theauxiliary component in colloquial speech:
I’ve done it, and etc.
The author presents the Microsystem and defines that thedistinctive features of tense comes first since it is tense, and not aspect,that presents the frame of the system, though opinions may differ on this score(cf.: traditional Russian term «aspect-tense system of Russian verb»).
In her debates with O. Jespersen who denied the existence offuture tense as a grammatical tense in English and it was repeated in moremodern publications (By Barkhudarov, 1975) the author writes «the most exactapproximation of the real, notional time will be the division into past, presentand future, if the linguistic material admits such a differentiation».
The paradigm of tense-aspect in English, from the point ofthe author's view, is based upon temporal divisions (both proper and relative),forming a frame into which aspect differentiation is included within the rangeof different temporal points. Special attention was given to perfectnees.
Perfectness is the most enduring and essential category, actingin all microsystems (Table 17).
Describing stylistical features of the present, pastand future tenses she marks that the present tense is widely used in narrationstaking place within the sphere of the moment of speech, especially in plays anddialogues; «historical present»; permanent qualities, etc. The main sphere ofthe use of the past tense is the narration in the past, therepresentation of a chain of events which happened before the present' time.The complete parallelism of the future I and the future 11 and their purelygrammatical meaning is exhibited an any contexts. The following sentences canbe represented by both future tenses.
e.g.: Then I will drive this pilum through you.
(He said he would drive that pikum through him).
I shall not bother about them.
(He said he would not bother about them).
We would give the descriptions of some terms according to I.B. Khlebnikova:
transposition – the transference of some pastactions into the range of the another axis of orientation – the presenttense which is the initual point of temporal opposition.
neutralization – the future action is expressedby the present Indefinite or Continuous.
oppositions – represent an event on the plane ofcontent of morphological forms which is reflected on the plane of expression.
e.g.: Mr. X arrives at London airport tomorrow.
I am taking the girl to London next week.
The author gives definitions of abstract grammaticalcategories which find expression in the tense-aspect microsystem (active).There are three in number: tense, temporal relativity (perfect-ness) andaspect (durative).
We agree with the author that «the items selected for study hererepresent the most debatable parts of morphology. It concerns, first of all, thegrammatical categories of the verb». Before presenting some facts at lecture ateacher have to transfer them according to the student's understanding.
Stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms can bepresented only in conditions of an utterance. An utterance is expressed bymeans of words and sentences. I.P. Verkhowskaya in her monograph «Tense-Aspectforms in English Complexs Sentence» conveys some results of her researchwork in the frames of the complex sentences (18290 examples). The authorpresents three tenses: Present, Past, Future Indefinite and shows how touse them according to the Sequences of Tenses. She pays her special attentionto how to use the Present and Past Perfect and completes specific qualificationin the frames of the complex sentence.
At the same time of discussion on a question about stylisticpotential of tense-aspect verbal forms in Modern English we, the teachers, haveto expand the students’ skill in the sphere of grammatical usage of these formsin utterances. In this case we can elicit a lot of examples given by I.P. Verkhovskayain her monograph.
«Practical Stylistics of English» written by L.P. Efimovis an attempt to supply the student of English Stylistics with a practicalappendix to the lecture and seminar course of stylystic study. The f purpose ofthis book is to aid the teaching process by which a student becomes aware ofthe richness and variety of English stylistic means of communication. Theauthor writes that the central notion of Morphologicai Stylisticsis the notion of transposition: a divergence between the traditionalusage of a neutral word and its situational (stylistic) usage. Transposition ofverb is even more varied than that of nouns. It is explained by a greaternumber of grammatical categories the meanings of which may be transposed. Mastexpressive are tense forms, mood and voice forms. One of peculiar features ofEnglish tense forms is their polysemantism: the same form may realizevarious meanings in speech. Deviation from the general meaningmakes verbs stylistically coloured.
e.g.: (Present continuous as future time.)
Pete is staring a new life tomorrow.
(The present continuous introduces the negative connotationsof irritation, regret, sadness and others)
John is constantly grumbling.
There is a rule that verbs of sense perception and mentalactivity are not used in the continuous tense forms. This rule is oftenbroken intentionally or subconsciously. In both cases verbal forms conveyadditional stylistic meanings of subjective modality:
e.g.: I an seeing you = I am not blind.
e.g.: I am understanding you = You need not go intofurther details.
I am feeling your touch = So tender you are, etc.
The author marks that «historical present» brightens thenarration, raises its emotional tension, expresses intrigue, makes thecontinuity of events visual and graphic.
e.g.: It was yesterday and looked this way. The perpetrator comesto his victim, takes a long dagger out of his inner pocket and stabsthe poor man right into. – his belly without saying a word…
Transposition is not the only way to make expressive. A goodmany verbal forms are expressive in themselves, for example, the imperativemood.
e.g.: Just come to me now – «may contextually imply loveor hate, threat of warning, promise or desire.
The wide range of subjunctive mood forms offers a goodstylistic choice of synonymous ways to verbalize one and the same idea.
e.g.: It is time for me to go (stylistically neutral)
It is time that I went (bookish and obsolescent)
In many contexts passive verbal forma are more expressive.
e.g.: A round table occupied the centre of the room,
cf: The centre of the room was occupied by a roundtable.
e.g.: They answered him nothing=He was answerednothing.
All these notes are very important for our paper: they givesome additional features to our subject but it is not enough for leaning in theframes of stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms.
Thus, the pedagogical quest has long been to find ways ofdeveloping a student’s knowledge about grammar which are both enlivening andrewarding, and it continues to be an important goal of contemporary educationallinguistics. The field of grammar is often divided into two domains: morphologyand syntax. In our case we have examined some points from transformationalrelations that were involved in tense-aspect formations of the morphologicallevel. Different kind of transformations depend on the purpose of communicationand can be treated only in the contexts.
In this case we can say about stylistic potential oftense-aspect verbal forms of modern English. Interactions between grammarand stylistics are of the essence of language and probably the most significantpoint to notice in studing of a language in general. A special interest attachesto the correlation between meanings expressed by grammatical forms and theirstylistic meanings to which in our paper we repeatedly draw our attention.
2. The analysis of stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbalforms in modern English
The main aim of the second part is to research and pick outsome interesting examples from original English literature according to two tables(4, 12) that is two types of grammatical transpositions and aspectuality in theframes of the peripheral field. Our purpose is to confirm the centralprinciples included in these tables and to present a lot of samples to enrichthe Theoretical Grammar with new visual and practical material that gives realjerk to teachers to complete students’ seminars on this subject moreinteresting and productive.
The main methords which have been used in our research paperare:
– philological observations;
– revealind some samples, examples, facts from originalliterature of English authors and generalization;
– contextolpgical analysis of some contexts; descriptionsome important fact in considerable details.
Our results were obtained on the edge of some liguisticsciences:
Sty1istics, Functional Grammar, Syntax, Functional andCommunicative Linguistics, The Theory of Interpretation of Texts, The Theory ofContextual Situation and others.
The application of these methods makes it possible toestablish the concrete system in the frames of this students can observestylistic potential of verbal forms in real environment and circumstances. Thegiven gu tations from different sources serve to show how the two types oftranspositions and aspectuality in the frames of peripheral field have beenvariously used by different English writers.
StylisticPotential of Tense-Aspectual forms of English Verbs
2.1 The typesof transpositions of verbal forms as stylistic came in the category of tense
Transpositionwith functional-stylistic characters expressed by verbal forms.
Archaisms are words which wereonce common but now are (Table 1.4) replaced by synonyms. When theauthor consider the grammatical system of English verbs as an adaotive systemhas to mark some, thing historical important in narrative, description orpoetry they use archaic verbal forms. N.M. Rayevska characterizes: «Thearchaic variant forms are used for stylistic purposes to create the atmosphereof elevated speech in pictorical language, in poetry or in proverbial saying». (29,p. 55) There are only some forms: Table «Archaic Forms of theAuxiliaries». The forms given in the tables above are those of modernstandard English. One may also come across archaic forms, mainly in. poetry ortexts where an archaic effect is intended.
Verbs dost [dΛst], [dəst] Present indefinite, 2nd person singular to do doth, doeth (dΛØ), [dəØ] Present indefinite, 3rd person singular didst [didst] Past indefinite, 2nd person singular art| [a:t], [ət] Present indefinite, 2nd person singular to be
wast [wost], [wəst],
wert [wə:t], [wət] Past indefinite, 2nd person singular hast [hæst], [həst], [əst], [st] Present indefinite, 2nd person singular to have hath [hæØ], [həØ], [əØ] Present indefinite, 3rd person singular hadst [hædst], [hədst], [ədst]
Past indefinite, 2nd person
singular shall [ƒælt], [ƒəlt], [ƒlt] Present indefinite, 2nd person singular shall shouldst, shouldest (ƒudst)
Past indefinite, 2nd person
singular wilt [wilt], [əlt], [|it] Present indefinite, 2nd person singular will wouldst, wouldest [wudst]
Past indefinite, 2nd person
We can add some more examples:
Saith = says; Modal verbs:
endeth = ends; canst, needest, mayest.
knoweth = knows;
spake = spoke;
throve = thrived;
bare = bore
art = is;
stretchest, coverest fwalketh, maketh, layeth, gettest, didst,stiteth, beginneth, heareth and others.
e.g.: Byron, George NoelGORDON, Lord -1788–1824.
«…For it hath been by sorrow nursed,
And ach’d in sleepless silence long;
And now 'tis doom'd to know the worst,
And break at once-or yield to song.»
(G.G. Byron. My soul is dark. 17, p. 16.)
«…Thy tree hath lost its blossoms, and the rind,
Chopp’d by the axe, looks rough and little worth,
But the sap lasts, – and still the seed we find
Sown deep, even in the bosom of the North;
So shall a better spring lees bitter fruit bring forth.»
(G.G. Byron, From Childe Harold’s Piligrimage, 17, p. 211)
«…Thou stand’st along unrevall’d, till the fire
To come, in which all empires shall expire!»
(G.G. Byron, Moscow!, 17, p. 214)
«…The river glideth at his own free will:
Dear God! The very houses seem asleep;
And all that mighty heart is lying still!»
(W. Wordsworth‑1770–1850, Westminster Bridge, 17,p. 32)
«Where art thou, beloved To-morrow?
When young and old, and strong and weak,
rich and poor, trough joy and sorrow,
Thy sweet smiles we ever seek,-
In thy place-ah! well-A0DAY1
We find the thing we fled-To-day.»
(P.B. Shelly, 1792–1816,17, p. 57)
«O heart of man! canst thou not be Blithe as the airis, and as free?»
(H.W. Longfellow, 1807–1892,17, p. 142)
«Old Yew, which graspest at the stones
That name the under-lying dead,
Thy fibres net the dreamless head,
Thy roots are wrapt about the bones.»
(A. Tennyson, 1809–1892, 1/, p. 182)
«The Spanish people will rise again as they have always risenbefore against tyranny.
The dead do not need to rise. They are a part of the earthnow and the earth can never be conquered. For the earth endures forever. Itwill outlive all systems of tyranny».
(B. Hemingway, 1899–1961,19,67)
«…Doubting Charley! Who trust nobody and believes nothing.
But even Charley can’t deny that Sam’s dead. He’s dead.
When thou know’st how dry a cinder this world is:»
(R. Hill, published in 2002, l, p. 62)
A lot of Shakespearisms are used in Modern English which aredescribed by A.V. Kunin in his book The Course of Phraseology ofModern English». A.N. Morokhovsky lines out some phraseologicalunits as arkhaisms; be at accord with somebody = agree to smb.;
play upon advantage = to deceive;
at adventure = at random;
at fortune’s alms = as charity of a fate;
all and some = separately and together.
Numerous archaisms can be found in Shakespeare, but it shouldbe taken into consideration that what appear to us today as archaisms in theworks of Shakespeare, are in fact examples of everyday language of Shakespeare’stime.
The use of archaic variant forms in fiction, for instance, inhistorical novels, serves to characterize the speech of those times, reproduce itsatmosphere, its «couleur historique» (historic colour). As we have researchednumerous archaic forms can be found in poetry XVII–XIX, XX centuries: G.G. Byron,W. Wordsworth, P. Shelly, H.W. Longfellow, A. Tennyson; in prose writtenby E. Hemingway, R. Hill and others. For those students who want to continue toresearch this aspect of Linguistics there are a lot of unresolved points.
2. Popular language as a free and easy every-dayspeech
Acceding to Table 12 «Transposition with functional-stylisticcharacters» the next aspect of our analysis is «Popular language as afree-and-easy every-day speech».
I.V. Arnoldwrites in her monograph that authors use this phenomenon for stylisticpurposes: to portray the story-teller or hero (personage) when their storiesare about past events [4; 156].
Ain’t is a nonstandard contraction commonly (esp inAmE) in place of am not, is not, are not, have not. Aren’t Iis widely used, especially in BrE, whereas ain’t I, usuallyconsidered nonstandard, is somewhat more current in AmE. Amn’tI is mainly Scottish and Irish.
e.g.«Dear Mr. Pascoe,
Cambridge!St Godric’s College! The Quaestor’s Lodging!
Ain’t I the swell then? Ain’t Home Officecommercial for the rehabilitating power of the British penal system?» [HillReginal; 1; 13].
There are some illustrations from M. Twain:
e.g.«You don’t know about me, without you have read a book by name of The Adventuresof Tom Sawyer, but that ain’t no matter…» [10; 21].
e.g.«Stuff! Stealing cattle and such things ain’t robbery, it’sburglaty», says Tom Sawyer. «We ain’t burglars. That ain’tno sort of style…» [10; 21].
e.g.«Well, I knows what I’s gwyne to set down here andlisten tell I hears it agin» [10, p. 17].
e.g.«Why couldn’t you said that before?» [10; 22].
e.g.«You git me that money to-morrow- I want it.
– Ihain’t dot no money.
– It’sa lie. Judge Thatcher’s got it. You git it. I want it.
– Ihain’t got no money, I tell you…» [10; 35].
Note:hain’t = h a v e n o t, h a s n o t.
e.g.«It ain’t my fault I warn’t born a duke, it ain’tyour fault you warn’t born a king – so what’s the use to worry?…»[10; 150].
e.g.«The duke done (has done) it, and Jim and me was(sing) pretty glad to see it» [10; 150].
Note:warn’t = will not in the past tense.
e.g.«So, things I, I’ll go and search them (?) rooms… But I see Icouldn’t do nothing without a candle, and I dasn’t light one, ofcourse» [10, p. 207].
Ch. Dickens used a lot of the some examples in his novel «OurMutual Friend»
e.g.«But what you may call the Fates ordered him into it again? Which is rumness, ain’t?…»[5; 422].
e.g.«Mr Riderhood next demands his shirt; and draws it on over his head (with hisdaughter’s help), exactly as if he had just had a Fight. – «Warn’tit steamer?» he pauses to ask her. – «Yes, father». [5; 424].
e.g.«– Hear me out! «cried Wegg.» – I knew you was a – going to sayso. But along I bore the anxiety, and alone I’ll bear the blame!»… [5; 468].
Allthese quotations present themselves the low colloquial sublanguage.These dialogues (above) may not be exactly like others. Writers prefer to painttheir personages in words. A detailed analysis of these non-grammatical speechpatterns show that they are elements of a system, which is not deprived ofrationality. Substandard English is used by millions of people in Englishspeaking counties. It is a conspicuous indicator of low language culture andeducational level. Being introduced into books, it becomes a picturesquemeans of protagonist’s characterization.
3. Modal verbs and verbal forms with the modal meanings are veryimportant for us to present and use a lot of subtle stylistic connotations inour speech.
Thesimple modals, such can, may, must, will, shouldhave SINGLE forms, whereas the more complex structures known as PERIPHRASTICMODALS are formed with the verbs be and have,as in be able to (can, could);
be allowed to (may, might);
be going to (will, would);
be supposed to (shall, should) – (meant, expected,obliged);
have (got) to (must);
to be to (have to according to the plan). [G. Yule.Explaining Grammar, 31, p. 86].
e.g.«Some books are to tasted, others to be swallowed,and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books areto be read in parts; others to be read but not curiously;and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention».
[F.Bacon, 46; 156].
«Iwonder», said he (Wickham), at the next opportunity of speaking, whether he islikely to be in this country much longer.»
[JaneAusten. Pride and Prejudice, 4; 81].
«Oneof them at any rate: I (Shirley) do not bargain for less: and she is toappear in some such fashion as this. I am to be walking by myselfon deck, rather late of an August evening, watching and being watched by fullharvest-moon…»
[Ch.Bronte, Shirley, 11; 145].
«Mightshe only follow her own judgment, she thought she should be able tofind, perhaps a harsh, but effectual cure for her sufferings». [11; 242].
«Iasked to be allowed to look at the note of terms which hisrespectable patron had drawn up for my inspection.» [W. Collins, TheWoman in White, 2; 10].
«Whyblame it all, we’ve got to do it. Don’t I tell you it’s in thebooks?»
[M.Twain, 10, p. 21].
«Wouldyou stop complaining about things? We’re supposed to do our bestand we should be able to finish this work before the boss hasto start screaming at us again. If you could just concentrate ongetting finished, we might be allowed to leave early thisafternoon. You know he’s not going to let us leave early if wecan’t get the work done.
[G.Yule. 31; 86].
StylisticPotential of the Periphrastic modals in Context
be able to
It is used to convey each of the different kinds of «potential». Difference is in the past tense: the implication is that the actual event took place.
Note: can is used at least 10 times more often than be able to.
a) We could repair the old car.
b) We were able to repair the old car.
be allowed to
«Permission» as a root modality is clearly appropriate when be allowed to occurs with other simple modals.
Its interpretation differs from might in the past tense. With might, the interpretation is remote possibility, but with were allowed to, the interpretation is remote fact.
a) Will we be allowed to light the fire?
b) Oh, no. You won’t be allowed to play with matches.
a) They might have a break after lunch.
b) They were allowed to have a break after lunch.
have (got) to
There is no past form of «must». Expressions of past necessity are generally presented via the form have to for obligations and conclusions.
In the present tense have to can be used in a wider range of constructions than must.
As uncontrollable external source that compels an action.
More typically found in informal speech have got to is used with the root meaning of obligation.
It does not occur with other modal forms.
Mustn’t conveys an obligation not to do something, whereas don’t have to means that there is not an obligation to do something.
a) When I was in school, we had to wear school uniform.
b) He was really dig, he had to be over 7 feet tall.
a) Do we really have to go this meeting?
b) Yes, and we will have to present our report.
a) Excuse me, but I have to sneeze.
a) They’ve got to try harder next time.
a) You mustn’t drink beer.
b) You don’t have to drink beer.
be going to
It is not used to express the «willingness» associated with «will».
The future action is related to the present and will occur soon after the time of speaking.
The action with be going to was already planned or decided.
CF: I’m gonna be sick (the reduced form of casual speech shown);
I will be sick (if I eat any more of this ice cream).
a) I’m going to finish these exercises.
b) And I’ll get round to the others later.
a) Close your eyes, I’m going to give you surprise.
b) Watch out! The monster is going to get you.
be supposed to
It is used with a function similar to should in its root sense of weak obligation. This is an implication with be supposed to that the social requirement being mentioned is external to the speaker and may be one that the speaker feels is being ignored.
The social obligations are weaker than those marked by should.
a) You’re supposed to be studying, not watching TV.
b) I’m not supposed to be laughing about it but it’s very funny.
RandomQuirk [28, p. 137] gives classifying them as: some interestinginformation about the «The verb of intermediate function»:
1.Central Modals: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will/’ll,would/’d, must.
2.Marginal Modals: dare, need, ought to, used to.
3.Modal Idioms: Had better, would rather / sooner, be to, have gotto.
4.Semi-auxiliaries: have to, be about to, be able to, be bound to,
begoing to, be obliged to, be supposed to,
e.g.«One had better (best) do smith» – [25, v. 2; 119].
«Ifyou want to feel good and live a long life you had better take ahalf-hour walk each day, preferably at a brisk pace». [3; 262].
«Youhad better ask us about the perfect diet in a perfect environmentand how to maintain your good health longer if you take the effective doses ofvitamins A, C, E, plus selenium, glutathione, cysteine, and bioflavonoids» [3;266].
«Oneo’clock has just struck. I am considering whether I had betterwait here for the arrival of the messenger from London, or slip away quietly,and watch for him outside the long gate». [W. Collins, The Woman in White,2; 238].
«Or,perhaps – NO! it is quite revolting enough to feel that third conjecture stirring in my mind. I would rather not see it confronting me inplane black and white». [2; 228].
«Bywhatever other circumstance the day may be marked. It is not the day, Lavinia,on which I will allow a child of mine to pounceupon me. I beg – nay, command! – that you will not pounce». [Ch. Dickens, OurMutual Friend, 5; 430].
«Ihad not spoken hitherto, and I would much rathernor have spoken now. But the expression of distress in Laura’s face when sheturned it towards me… left me no other alternative than to give my option…» [W.Collins, 2; 218].
«Manyof these visitor were consumptive, who had yet to learn that the bracing alpineair would sooner for their health…» [The Sunday Times, Culture, June 27, 2004,p. 42].
«Theone virtue of our electoral system is supposed to be that itenables the people to «kick the rascals out» at election time…» [The Week, 30Oct. 2004, p. 34].
I.V. Arnold points atmodal particles just, only but K.N. Kachalova, [24,p. 303–305] includes too, also, as well, either, else, even, alone, ever,simply, merely. They can express the additional shades (connotations) incontext.
e.g.«There was something hidden, beyond a doubt, under the mere surface-brutalityof the words which her husband had just addressed to her». [2;224].
«Thatwas the very thing I was thinking just now, «saidStickly-Prickly.» I think scales are a tremendous improvement on prickles – tosay nothing of being able to swim…» [The Children’sTreasury of Humour, 12; 42].
«Howstrange! «cried Elizabeth.» How abominable! – I wonder that the very pride ofthis Mr. Darcy has not made him just to you!» [J. Austen, Prideand Prejudice, 4; 85].
«ButI tell you, honestly, if you want to see me swim away, you’ve onlygot to drop me into the water». [12; 39].
«June19th. – I had only got as far as the top of stairswhen the locking of Laura’s door suggested to me the precaution of also lockingmy own door, and keeping the key safety about me while I was out of my room».[W. Collins, 2; 272].
Periphrasticmodals are used to communicate a lot of connotations and subtle shades andtinges. This process of activation of periphrastic modals by relating them toour speaking and writing expands possibilities and potentialities of texts anddiscourses in the frame of their contexts. They convey the identities,knowledge, emotions, abilities, beliefs, and assumptions of the writer(speaker) and reader (hearer); association and the relationships holdingbetween them. The most striking instances of periphrastic modals presentedabove give us additional material for the practical course in the frames of thetheoretical English grammar.
Stylistic transpositions of special connotative value inexpressive language conveyed by verbal forms. (Table 1.4.)
l. The Historical Present.
e.g. «Habits of writing and reading in Anglo-Saxon England wereindeed largely confined to monastic centers; but from thetwelfth century onwards the production and consumption of manuscript material increasedgreatly, and some vernacular works of fourteenth and fifteenth centuries survivein numerous copies.» [The Oxford Illustrated History of English Literature, 20;3].
«Such verse (alliterative) continued to bewritten in English, as we shall see, to the end of the Middle Ages and it hasbee revived in modern times by poets such as W.H. Auden; but itsprinciples, derived from a common Germanic tradition of oral poetry, presentdifficulties to the reader of Chaucer, Pope, or Tennyson. [20; 4].
«The evolution of Homo sapiens, being with the same physicalcharacteristics that we possess, was a long and complex processthat is still imperfectly understood. The earliest evidence for the existenceof Australopithecus, or «southern ape», dates from approximately2 million years ago and comes from the temperate regions ofAfrica and western Asia (now known as the Middle East)». [Civilization of theWorld, 21; 4].
NOTE: The so-called «historical present» occurs in historicalinformation, in rather mannered and formal prose of an old-fashioned tone, andfurthermore it is common in colloquial spoken narrative, especially at pointsof particular excitement. The time reference is unequivocally past. [Quirk R., 28;1457].
2. Colloquial spoken narratives with the «historicalpresent» as characteristic of popular narrative style.
e.g. «It was on the Merritt Parkway just southof New Haven. I was driving along, half asleep, my mind milesaway, and suddenly there was a screeching of brakes and I catchsight of a car that had been overtaking me apparently. Well, he doesn’t.He pulls in behind me instead, and it’s then that Inotice a police car parked on the side». [Quirk R., 28;1457].
«I hand the first book to my math. Perhaps it isgrammar, perhaps a history or geography. I take a last drawning, lookat the page as I give it into her hand, and startoff aloud at a racing pace while I have got it fresh. I trip overword Mr. Murdstone looks up. I trip over anotherword. Miss Murdstone looks up. [Ch. Dickens, 29; 141].
«She has escaped from my Asylum!»
I cannot say with truth that the terribleinference which those words suggested flashed uponme like a new revelation. Some of the strange questions put to meby the woman in white, after my ill-considered promise to leave her free to actas she pleased, had suggested the conclusion eitherthat she was naturally flighty unsettled, or thatsome resent shock of terror had disturbed the balance of herfaculties. But the idea of absolute insanity, which we all associatewith the wery name of an Asylum, had, I canhonestly declare, never occured to me, inconnection with her.»
[W. Collins, The Woman in White, 2; 21–22].
«Mr. and Mrs. Veneering were bran-new people ina bran-new house in a bran-new quarter of London. Everything about theVeneerings was spick-and-span new. All their furniture wasnew, all their friends were new, all their servants werenew, their plate was new… This evening the Veneerings givea banquet. Eleven leaves in the Twemlow; fouteen in companyall told. Four pigeon-breated retainers in plain clothes stand inline the hall… Mrs. Veneering welcomes her sweet Mr. Twemlow. Mr.Vereening we1coms his dearTwemlow…» [Ch Dickens, 5; 7].
«The poetry of Shakespeare was inspiration:indeed, he is not so much an imitator, as instrument of nature;and it is not so just to say that he speaks fromher, as that she speaks through him». [Hazlitt, 14; 1].
«Shakespear’s imagination, by identifying itself with thestrongest characters in the most trying circumstances, grapp1edat once with nature, and trampled the littleness of art under hisfeet: the rapid changes of situations, the wide range of the universe, gavehim life and spirit, and afforded full scope to his genius… Theauthor seems all the time to be thinking of hisverses, and not of his subject, – not of what his characters would feel,but of what he shall say; and as it must happen in all suchcases, he always puts in their mouths those things which they wouldbe the last to think of, and which it shews the greatestingenuity in him to fink out.» [14; 256].
«I was sitting at the bus stop the other dayand this woman was sitting across from me and I seethis caterpillar drop behind her and startsquiggling its way up to her and I’m just like, «Should I tell her or should Inot?» I sat there for five minutes a and watched itget up to her shoe and I decided I can’t tellher. I’ve got to see what happens». [G.YULE, 31;72].
«Thisis the only point, I flatter myself, on which we donot agree. I had hope that our sentiments coincodedin every particular, but I must so far differ fromyou as to think our two youngest daughters uncommonly foolish».[J. Austen, 4; 29].
«He holds him with his skinny hand»
«There was a ship», quoth he.
«Hold off! unhand me, grey-bread loon!»
Fftsoons his hand dropt he.
He holds him with his glittering eye –
The Wedding-Guest stood still,
And listens like a three years’ child:
The Mariner hath his will.
The Wedding-Guest sat on a stone:
He cannot choose but hear;
And thus spake on that ancient man,
The bright-eyed Mariner.
PAST [Coleridge S.T., The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, 36; 40–41]
NOTE: These threeverses show no less than seven shifts of tense, backwards and forwards, fromsimple present to simple past.
Thechange of the tense-forms with one and the same time reference is a most effectivestylistic devices in expressive language. The historical presentdescribes the past as if it is happening now: it conveys something of thedramatic immediacy of an eye-witness account. The phenomenon of present/pasttense alternation is common in informal spoken narrative, conversations andletter writings.
3. Echo Utterances
Inthe discourse function echo utterances are either questions or exclamations.
1Recapitulatory echo questions:
a) ayes-no questions or questions which repeat part or all message:
e.g.A: The Browns are emigrating.
e.g.A: Switch the light off, please.
B: Switch the LIGHT OFF?
Switchthe LIGHT OFF, did you say?
(tomake the meaning explicit)
b) awh-echo questions which indicates, by wh-words, which part of theprevious utterance the speaker did not hear or understand;
e.g.A: It cost five dollars.
B:How much did it cost?
Howmuch did you say it cost?
I(after wh-element only)
e.g.A: Switch the light off.
B:Switch WHAT off?
e.g.A: His son is a macro engineer.
B:His son is a WHAT?
NOTE:What may replace a verb: e.g.: She sat there and WHAT ted?
Stylistic purpose: to express irony,incredulity, or merely fill a conversational gap.
e.g.:A: Have you borrow my PEN?
B:(Have I) borrow your PEN?
(ayes-no question about wh-question;
awh-question about a yes-no question;
awh-question about a wh-question)
2Explicatory echo questions
They are always WH-questions, which ask for theclarification, rather than the repetition.
e.g.:A: Take a look at this!
B:Take a look at WHAT?
e.g.A: He’s missed the bus again.
B:WHO’s missed the bus?
e.g.A: Oh, dear, I’ve lost the letter.
B:WHICH letter I have you lost?
(doyou mean you have lost?)
3. Echo exclamations: the form ofutterance to be repeated may be declarative, interrogative,imperative, or even exclamative.
Stylistic purpose: to expressastonishment, amazement, confusion, wonderment, consternation.
e.g.:A: I’m going to London for a holiday.
B:To LONdon! That not my idea of a rest.
e.g.:A: Open the door, please.
B:Open the DOOR! Do you take me for a doorman?
Note: In the frameof our research we give follow examples from quoted literature, namely:
Examplesfrom Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice:
e.g.:Jane: I was very much flattered by his asking me to dance a second time. I didnot0 expect such a compliment.
Elizabeth:Did not you? I did for you.
e.g.: Mr. Bennet. The person of whom I speak is gentleman anda stranger.
Mrs.Bennet’s eyes sparkled.-A gentleman and a stranger! It is Mr. Singly, Iam sure. [4; 63]
e.g.:(Mr. Bingley) What think you of books? said he, smiling.
Jane.Books-Oh! no. I am sure we never read the same, or not with the samefeelings! [4; 97].
e.g.:Mrs. Bennet. I cannot bear to think that they should have all this estate. Ifit was not for the entail, I should not mind it.
Mr.Bennet. What shouldnot you mind?
Mrs.Bennet. I should not mind anything at all. [4; 135]
e.g.:Lady Catherine. Has your governess left you?
MissBennet. We never had any governess.
LadyCatherine. Nogoverness. How was that possible?
Fivedaughters brought up at home without a governess! I never heard of such athing. Your mother must have quite a slave to your education. [4; 168].
e.g.:(Colonel Fitzwilliam) «We are speaking of musik, madam,» said he, when tolonger able to avoid a reply. Lady Catherine. Of music! Then pray speakaloud. It is all subjects my delight… [4; 176]
Examplesfrom Wilkie Collins. The Women in White.
e.g.:The Count. Gently, Percival-gently! Are you insensible to the virtue of LadyClyde?
SirPercival. That for the virtueof Lady Clyde! I believe in nothingabout her but her money… [2; 298]
e.g.:Mr. Fairlie…. Inexpressibly relieved, I am sure, to hear that nobody is dead.Anybody ill? «…Anybody ill?»– I repeated (Frederick)… [2; 315]
e.g.:«Where are you going? He (Sir Percival) said to Lady Glade.
«ToMarian's room,» she answered.
«Itmay spare you a disappointment», remarked Sir Percival, «if I tell you at oncethat you will not find her there.»
«Notfind her there!»
«No.She left the house yesterday morning with Fosco and his wife.» [2; 342]
Examples fromCharles Dickens. Our Mutual Friend.
e.g. «Are my feathers so very much rumpled? said Eugene,coolly going up to the looking-glass. «They are rather out of sorts. Butconsider. Such a night for plumage!
«Sucha night? repeated Mortimer. «What became of you in the morning?» [5;167]
e.g.:«Now, Lammle, «said fascination Fledge by, calmly feeling for his whisker, «itwon’t do. I won’t be led into a discussion. I can’t manage a discussion. But Ican manage to hold my tongue.»
«Can?«Mr. Lammle fell back upon propitiation.» I should think you could! Why, whenthese fellows of our acquaintance drink, and you drink with them, the moretalkative they get, the more silent you get. The more they let out, the moreyou keep in». [5; 252].
Echoutterances are recapitulatory echo questions, explicatory echo questions andecho exclamations. They repeat as a whole or in part what has been said byanother speaker. They may take the form of any utterance or partial utterancein the language. The stylistic purpose is to express irony, sarcasm,incredulity, doubt, astonishment, amazement, confusion, wonder, or merely tofill in a conversational gap.
STYLISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE CONTINUOUS TENSE
1. Expression of anger or irritation with adverbs such «always,every time, continually, constantly, forever»:
e.g.«I am astonished, «said Miss Bingley,» that my fattier should have left sosmall a collection of books. What a delightful library you have at Pemberley,Mr. Darcy!
«Itout to be good, «he replied,» it has been the work of many generations».
«Andthen you have added so much to it yourself, you are ALWAYS buying books.»
«Icannot comprehend the neglect of a family library in such days as these.» «Neglect!.»
[JaneAusten. Pride and Prejudice. 4; 38].
e.g.«Indeed, «replied Elizabeth,» I am heartily sorry for him; but he has otherfeelings, which will probably soon drive away his regard for mee. You do notblame me, however, for refusing him?»
«Blameyou! Oh, no.»
«Butyou are ALWAYS blaming me for having spoken so warmly of Wickham?» «No…» [J. Austen, 4;227].
NOTE: Incombination with always, continually, or forever, the progressive loses itssemantic component of «temporariness» The speaker seems to suggest that «buyingbooks» or «blaming me» are an irritating or deplorable habits.
e.g.: He is CONTINUALLY complaining about the noiseBill is ALWAYS /CONTINUALLY / FOREVER working late at office.
[R.Quirk, 28; 199, 543].
2. Future arising from present arrangement, plan,programme:
e.g.: «A fine evening, Miss Peecher», said the master.
«Afine evening, Mr. Headstone», said Miss Peecher. «Are you taking walk?»
«Hexamand I are going to take a long walk».
[Ch.Dickens. Our Mutual Friend, 5; 206].
e.g.:He (Sir Percival) stopped, and appeared to notice, for the first time, that wewere in our walking costume. «Have you just come in?» he asked, «or were justgoing out?»
«Weare all thinking of going to the lake this morning», said Laura. «Butif you have any other arrangement to propose»
«No,no», he answered hastily. «My arrangement can wait…» [W. Collins, 2; 203].
e.g.:«If you think I might risk it, Miss, I’d like to slip round to my dentist.» – Oh!what race is being run this afternoon, then, topping?» [Galsworthy, 29; 145].
e.g.:Brain said to his cousin, «I’m signing on as well in a way, only forlife.» I’m getting married».
Bothstopped walking. Bert took his arm and stared,
«I’m.To Pauline. [Sillitoe, 29; 144].
e.g.«I am going forwards, said the stranger, for Frankfort – and shall beback at Strasburg this day month…» –
«Itsa long journey, Sir, replied the master of inn-unless a man has great business.»
[LaurenceSterne. Selected Prose and Letters, 21; 171].
e.g.«Right ho! Then brinh me my whangee, my yellowest shoes, and the pod greenHomburg. I’m going into the Park to do pastoral dances».
[TheBook of English Humor, 16; 85].
3. Imperative modality
e.g. He tried to brush Anthony aside. But Ahthony firmlystood his ground. «I’m sorry,» he said, his teeth together,
«You’renot going in there». (Gordon)
NOTE: You arenot going is SYNONYMOUS with Don’t go! = Don’t you go!
[N.M. Rayevska,29; l45].
e.g.«We’re going after buff in the morning», he told her.
«I’mcoming», she said.
«Oh,yes, I am. Mayn’t I, Francis?»
«We’llput on another show for you tomorrow», Francis Macomber said.
«Youare not coining», Wilson said.
Thereare a lot of the subtle meaning associated with the progressive aspect.Syntagmatic connotative meanings of the Present Continuous signalled bydifferent context, linguistic or situational, may denote: expression of angeror irritation; future arising from present, arrangement, plan and programme;the imperative modality and other expressive elements. We used literary textsto illustrate how various features of the continuous tense can be used inspoken English.
Transpositionof grammatical forms will lead to their synonymic encounter:
- the Past Tense and the Historical Present;
- the Future Tense and the Present Tense;
– verb-formsof the Imperative and the Present Tense, and others.
2.2 The types of transpositions of verbal formsas stylistic means in the category of aspect
1. Iterative aspect
a) USE +TO infinitive: may denote not only repeated action in the past but permanentstate in the remote past:
e.g.:«I had a look at Brane yesterday; he’s changed a good deal from when I used toknow him. I was one of the first to give him briefs».
e.g.:There used to be a cinema here before the war. Life is not so easy hereas it used to be.
[Hornby A.S.,45; 153]
e.g.«The workshops have been shut up half-an-hour or more in Adam Bede’s timberyoard which used to be Jonathan Bridge’s».
e.g.«There used to be an old apple tree in the garden. Oh, did there?»
[C.E. Eckersley,3v; 255]
NOTE: «used to V» isused by 39 from 42 of Englishmen.
[A.I. Dorodnykh,8; 148]
Itis important to mark that in this situations in Spoken English used to Vis practised with verbs: to be (to exist), to grow, to know, to love, tohate, to work, to belong, to own.
e.g.«I had a look at Brane yesterday; he’s changed a good deal from when I usedto know him.»
e.g«Michael went up to Fleur in the room she used to have as a little dirl-a single room, so that he had been sleeping elsewhere.»
b) Would + V – infinitive as an action in thepast:
e.g. «Catherine, weak-spirifed, irritable, and completelyunder Lydia's guidance, had been always affronted by their advice; and Lydia,self-willed and bare less, would scarcely give them a hearing. They wereignorant, idle, and vain. While there was an officer in Meryton, they wouldflirt with him; and while Meryton was within a walk of Long-bourn, they wouldbe going there for ever».
[J.Austen. Pride and Prejudice, 4; 216]
e.g.«Sometimes Strickland would go down to the reef and come back wita basket of small, coloured fish that Ata would fry in coconut, or with alobster…»
[S.Maugham, 3; 111]
e.g.«Stimulated in course of time by the sight of so many successes, he would makeanother sally, make another loop, would all but have his foot onopposite pavement, would see or imagine something coming, and would staggerback again. There he would stand making spasmodic preparations as if for agreat leap, and at last would decide on a start at precisely the wrong moment,and would be roared at by drivers, and would shrink back once more, and standin the old spot shivering, with the whole of the proceedings to go throughagain».
[Ch.Dickens, Our Mutual Friend, 5; 505]
Thehistorical past tense of «will» is «would», often reduced in speech to «d.The combination of remoteness and likelihood as the conceptual basis of wouldgenerally leads to an interpretation of some event as being distant in timeor possibility from the moment of speaking. The remoteness element in would,combined with the epistemic interpretation (deductions or conclusions made bythe speaker) is an interpretation of the past habitual behavior.
c)Iterative aspect expressed by Verb + ON and ON / OVERand OVER AGAIN / TIME and TIME AGAIN.
e.g. «Remembering Mr. Dawson’s caution to me, I subjectedMrs. Rublle to a severe scrutiny at certain intervals for the next three orfour days. I over and over again entered the room softly and suddenly,but I never found her out in any «suspicious action.»
[W.Collins. The Woman in White, 2; 329]
e.g.«She had hovered for a little while in the near neighborhood of her abandoneddwelling, and had sold, and knitted and sold, and gone on. In the pleasanttowns of. Chertsey, Walton, Kingston, and Staines her figure came time andtime again to be quite well known for some short weeks, and then againpassed on.»
[C.Dockens. 5; 477]
e.g.On and on stormed the loud applause. He has gone through all that overand over again. «You could have let that rom time and time again», says she.(Mansfield) [29; 134]
e.g. It was easy to talk on and on.
Mendid the same job over and over.
d) Syntactic reduplication:
e.g.«Hear the sledges with the bells-Silver bells! What a world a merriment theirmelody foretells!
Howthey tinkle, tinkle, tinkle,
Inthe icy air of night! [E.A. Po. The Bells, 9; 58]
NOTE: Thefrequentive character of the action (tinkle) is intensified by syntacticreduplication.
e.g.«He talks, talks, talks about protecting women, and when the time comes for himto do some protecting, where is he?» [Mitchell, 29; 134].
Theimportant components of the peripheral field of aspect are the ways of actionswhich find their positions in such verbal patterns as Verb + on and on/over and overagain/time and time againand syntacticreduplications.
2. Inchoative Aspect
a)the model COME + TO VERB: some activity or state which has beengradually approached and has now set in:
e.g.:I came to like the child. He came to like poetry. Poetry cameto be his gratest interest.
e.g.«…I don’t believe «Da» was beautiful, when I came to think of it, andMademoiselle’s almost ugly». [Galsworthy, 9; 130]
Themodal COME + TO VERB can be presented as perfective orterminative meanings:
e.g.«Mr. Bingley and his sisters came to give their – personal invitationfor the long-expected ball at Netherfield, which was fixed for the followingTuesday».
[J.Austen. Pride and Prejudice, 4; 90]
e.g.«While the family were in this confusion, Charlotte Lucas came to spendthe day with them.» [4; 84]
e.g.«It’s gone now», said Betty.» I shall be stranger than I was afore. Many thanksto ye, my dear, and when you come to be as old as I am, may others do asmuch for you». [4; 102]
b) Gome + to Vinf = Get + To Vinf (inspoken English indicating that some activity or state has just set in)
e.g.How do I get to know you better?
Shegot to think.
Thechildren didn't like living in the country when, they first moved from London,but they’re getting to like it (becoming fond of it).
He’sgetting to be (is becoming) quite a good pianist.
Hesoon got to know (learnt) the wisdom of being patient.
c) Take+ to – V ing = the ingressive character of an action or
the beginning of a habit:
e.g. «Then he took to walking (addicted) along thestreet which he must pass through to get to the shop and he would stand at thecorner on the other side as she went along.» (Maugham)
e.g.«He forced himself at last to finish the magazine/and from the steamer libraryhe culled several volumes of poetry. But they could not hold him, and once morehe took to walking.» (J. London)
d) Fall+ to – V ing implies a sudden beginning of the activity:
e.g.«He started to take off his shoes, but fell to staring at the white plasterwall opposite him, broken by long streams of dirty brown where rain had leakedthrough the roof». (J. Galsworthy) [3;80]
e.g.«Peggotty fell to kissing the keyhole as she could not kiss me». (Ch.Dickens) [3; 25]
e.g.:«…One of the volumes was a Swinburne. He lay in bed, glancing through itspages, until suddenly he became aware that he was reading with interest. Hefinished the stanza, attempted to read on, then came back to it. He reasted thebook face downward on his breast and fell to thinking». (J. London)
e)Phraseological units with verbs BREAK, BURST, FALL, PUT can be used asimpression:
e.g.«It just shows a lot o’good you can do when you stick up for your kids», Adaremarked before breaking into a laugh when Johnny clomped into the housethat night». [A. Sillitoe, 3; ll8]
e.g.«It is hard to burst into laughter at in ray moments of sentiment, as ifmy soul was like myself, old and over-grown. Observe, dear lady, what a lightis dying on the trees! Does it penetrate your heart, as it penetrates1 mine?» [W.Collins. 2; 257]
e.g.«She burst into tears as she alluded to it, and for a few minutes couldnot speak another word.» [J. Austen. 4; 278]
e.g.«From there one could look down at the river winding among poplars and willows…Birds broke into song». [J. Galsworthy, 3; 118]
InchoativeAspect (ingressive aspect) expresses a focus on the onset of situations and isassociated with verbs like begin and start. Correlation betweenmorphological, grammatical and semantic means can be found in the frames of theperipheral field of aspect, mood and modality.
3. Patterns with the emphatic DO
Patterns with the emphatic DO may be used to expressvarious emotions, such as: insistence, assurance, affirmation of reply to aquestion in the affirmative or agreement with what has been said, sympathy,surprise, indignation, irony, mild reproach, admonition and others.
Examples from W. Collins. The Woman in White:
«Have you forgotten the letter he wrote to her at the beginningof her illness? It was shown to you, you read it yourself, and you ought toremember it». – «I do ember it». [3; 344]
«You are heartily welcome, sir, to any think I can tell you»,answered Mrs. Clements. She stopped and looked at me wistfully. – «But I dowish,» said the poor woman, «you could have told me a little more about Anne,sir.» [3; 429]
«I am sorry to hear her mother say so.»
«Her mother does say so. How do you know she isdead?»
«I am not at liberty to say how I know it-but I doknow it». [3; 438]
«How could I? I was too terrified to move or speak.»
«But when you did move-when you came out – ?»
«I run back here, to tell you what had happened.» [3; 252]
Examples from Austen J. Pride and Prejudice:
«Certainly, «replied Elizabeth – «there are such people, butI hope I am not one of them. I hope I never ridicule what is wise or good.Follies and nonsense, whims and inconsistencies, do divert me, Iown, and I laugh at them whenever I can-But these, I suppose, are preciselywhat you are without.» [4; 58]
«You mean to frighten me, Mr. Darcy, by coming in all thisstate to hear me? But I will not be alarmed though your sister doesplay so well. There is a stubbornness about me that never can bear to befrightened at the will of others.» [4; 177]
«After a few minutes reflect ion, however, she continued -» Ido remember his boasting one day, at Netherfield, of theimplacability of his resentments, of his having an unforgiving temper. Hisdisposition must be dreadful.» [4; 84]
Themain function of DO is a syntactical function. The second purpose of DO– using is to express the subtle shades of subjective modal meanings which wecan found only in the speech context or situation.
Forforeign students there are not always easy to render the precise effect of theemphatic auxiliary DO in all the variety of its idiosyncraticuse.
4. Actions of Single Occurrence:
a) momentaneous actions of single occurrence:
e.g.«Young Lolyon shot at him a penetrationg glance.»
«Hemade a start towards at the moment as if he had some other farewellwords to say; but she only hurried off the faster, and Mr. Tarley followed asin duty bound».
[Ch.Dickens, 5; 48]
«Whenhis hammer tried to take a bite out of his thumb he swore with suchawful care and deliberation for five minutes that Vera went into the other roomuntil his vocabulary gave under the passing of time».
[A.Silitoe, 3; 119], [29; 134–135]
b) single actions of some short duration:
e.g. «He did not give it a thought». (Galsworthy)
«Shegave him a little hurried kiss». (K. Mansfield) «…Then hermeaning flashed across his clever brain and he gave her a thought.» (S.Maugham)
Examplesfrom W. Collins. The Woman in White:
e.g.«The line outside took a sudden turn to the left, ran on straight for ahundred yards or so, and then took another sharp turn to theright to join the high-road.» [2; 239]
e.g.«I collected myself sufficiently to make a sign in the affirmative.» [2;241]
e.g.«The discovery – I don't know why – gave me such a shock, that Iwas perfectly incapable of speaking to her for the moment.» [2; 249]
The stylistic range of such «phrasal» verbs is very wide.Their dynamic character and the possibility of attaching various kind ofattributes to the nominal element makes them particularly suitable for use indescriptive pictorial language, as compared to corresponding simple verbs.Highly expressive in meanings these «metaphors» have contributed significantlyto the development of emotional and affective means in present-day English.
5. Progressive (Durative) Aspect:
T h e d u r a t i v e (progressive) character of the actiondoes not find its expression only in the progressive (continuous) tense-formsof the English verb.
The idea of duration may be also conveyed by verbs used toindicate their continuing perspectives and treated as aspectual verbs (or aspectualizers– (31, p. 223). These verbs do not denote separate actions, theiroccurrence with complement verbs cannot be interpreted as two actions insequence.
Progressiveaspect can be conveyed by such verbs:
STAND / STAY / LIE / CONTINUE / GO ON / KEEP (on) + V-ing.
e.g.«I stood looking down it, uncertain which way to take next, and while Ilooked I saw on one thorny branch some fragments of fringe from a woman’s shawl»
(W.Collins, The Woman in White, 2, p. 260)
«Nobodyshall see me, but I will keep hearing of your voice, if anythinghappens.» [2; 253]
e.g.«Sloppy stayed staring at the pattern of the paper on the wall, untillthe Secretary and Mrs. Boffin came back together».
[Ch.Dickens, 5; 306]
e.g.«He went to the door, stood looking down at the lock, and said, «Thanksfor a great weekend. I had the best time of my life.»
[H.Reginald. Death’s Jest-Book, 1; 115]
e.g.«This was cynicism so patent, that all the Forsyte in Soames rejected it; andyet it would keep coming back.
«Shestood looking at herself reflected in it, pale, and rather dark underthe eyes; little shudders kept passing through her nerves.» (J.Galsworthy) [3; 113]
NOTE: V-ingmeans: the period of time/ongoing events or activity and process.
Inpresent-day English, especially in spoken English, these verb-phrases are foundmore frequently: scarcity in morphological devices to indicate aspect inEnglish has necessitated the development of the conventional practices.
Theanalysis of the distributional meaning of tense-aspect verbal forms inpresent-day English, brief as it is, will remind us of the constitutional valueof syntactic morphology whose subject matter is «grammar in context».Variations in the use of the tense-aspect verbal forms, their potentialpolysemy and transpositions conditioned by the mode of the speaker’srepresentation of the verbal idea are a source of constant linguistic interest.Different tense-aspect forms are not yet finally and absolutely fixed. Makingfor greater subtle-ties and finer shades in expressing the speaker’s subjectiveattitude to the utterance functional shifts are really taking place.
3.Methodological recommendations for teaching of tense-aspect verbal forms inEnglish language using their stylistic potential
Atthe end of our paper we shall give some ideas for teachers to help them thinksteps, exercises and activities for students’ practical studies.
1 step: to research and use the pedagogical literature.
Manyrules are considerably more complex than can be done, and linguistics are stillresearching areas of language. According to Michael Swan, an author not only oftextbooks but also of one of the most widely-used pedagogic grammar, suggestsanumber of measures of a good rule (1994). These include «simplisity», «truth»,«clarity», and «relevance». From this point of view Raymond Murphyin his «Essential Grammar in Use» (elementary, intermediate courses)gives a lot of simple descriptions how to use and study the present perfecttense, for example, Units 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21 from entermediate course. «LongmanAdvanced Grammar» (Reference and Practice) written by L.G. Alexanderand his «Longman English Grammar» begin at about the level of theCambridge First Certificate, build up to the level of the Cambridge AdvancedExamination and culminate at the level of the Cambridge Certificate ofProficiency, This Grammar has three aims:
1.To serve as an advances «text decoder», ising the analysis of syntax as the keyto understanding difficult text.
2.To provide practice in advanced point of grammar.
3.To serve as an advanced reference grammar, where citations are to befound in context, and not just quoted at sentence-level inisolation from their source.
Forexample, Unit 19, p. 84. The text «Alaska’s dirty dollars» is presented asdifference between the present perfect tense and the past simple tense whichare used here. And we suggest to all teachers of grammar to represent stylisticpotential of tense-aspect verbal forms only in the frames of context.
Everyteacher can elicit a lot of ideas for presenting and practicing tenses inEnglish from book written by Rosemary Aitken «Teaching Tenses». In thisbook there are a lot of answers on teacher questions, namely:
1. How to organize a tense for teaching: the main problems.
2. How to prepare to teach a tense: CASSIAL:
Choose, Analyse, Sequence, Select, Identify context,Auxiliary material, Leaner error = CASSIAL. They are basic steps which it ishelpful to follow in planning a tense for teaching purposes. Forexample: the present perfect is described through the analysis (table,questions to draw the target, notes), meaning and function (for uncompletedaction, for action which took place in the past, etc), suggested context,learner error: meaning and function.
Thus, teachers can find and use these books for supplementingof supporting their classroom teaching.
On page 236 we can find a lot of interesting activities presentedby Penny Ur in book «Grammar Practice Activities»: we are sayingabout how to understand and use the present perfect through communicatedmethodology: use of present perfect to present current news (materials,procedure, variantions, communicative context from a pile of English-languagenewspapers); «find someone who…» (tables, a set of cards with «ever-never»); «whathas / have happened (two pictures showing situation before and after accountingfor moods (set of photoes); I have lived here changes) for/since (to describe apast state or process extending into the present, etc.: a lot of communicativeideas.
Another interesting material we can suggest to teachers from «PlayGames With English» 1,2,3, plus, systematically and selectively, forexample, we can find the structures and language points in the second book «She’spacked her suitcase», p. 32,42,76, and in the third book – «I’ve lost my keys»,p. 16,46. These exercises are given in visual pictures and students like to usethem in their grammar study.
In «Explaining English grammar» George Yule presents alot of exercises on difference between perfect and progressive aspects: «Anumber of exercise types can be found to practice progressive aspect, with verbthat have both durative and stative aspect, for example» «What on earth is (s) hedoing?», p. 79; «Why are they smiling?"(photograph with two old men),and others.
The teacher must be the researcher in the grammar ocean. Onlyin this case working with different pedagogical literature according to the specificgrammar task and aim sistematically and selectively he or she can produce andpresent English grammar brightly and clearly and will be loved by students.
1.1. Throughout ofcenturies English Scholar created the system of the Morphology Grammar whereEnglish verbal forms as the basis of Grammar have gradually been presented,studied and researched as a great stylistic potential. Being placed inunusual syntagmatic environmentwhich change their canonized grammaticalcharacteristics and combinability, English Verbs acquire stylisticsignificant.
1.2. Following thedescription of basic verbal forms, Yuri G. conveys not only specific featuresof verbal forms and structures according to tenses and aspects, but includes apiece of information on how meanings of verbal forms can be shaped bf contextand communicative purpose – stylistic potential of verbal forms.
1.3. R. Quirk andhis team give a lot of information about time, tense and aspect; the tables inwhich English verbs are divided into stative and dynamic types; difficult themeas «aspect» is presented in clear and lucid language. There are some problemswhich are debated up to now, for example, «the reality of the perfectiveprogressive».
1.4. N.N. Rayevska puts forward severalinteresting and stimulating ideas for the further philological observationsthat according to her point of view are very productive and prospective:
1. Development of grammat co-ideomatical structures.
2. Morphological correlations of interlevel units andinclusion them in the peripheral field of verbal forms.
3. The Phrasiological System in its unity with garammaticalfunctioning.
4. Paculiarities of lexical combinability and realization oftense-aspect forms in the community of their syntactical structures and others(a lot of ideas!)
1.5. Two types of transposition [Table 1.4] describedby I.V. Arnold are used in our practical part with the aim to expand theframes of their usage as obvious and visuial examples from English originalliterature.
1.6. Satisfactory results in the philological trainingof students can be achieved only on condition that students have firmly,mastered the basic principles if every linguistic disciplin, stylisticsincluded.
1.7. In monograph Stylistics of English Languagethe authors show that the diapason of stylistic devices is very high. We havemarked only s some of them but very expressive categories of time, voice andmood. All these means can be used only in context. We consider that the subject«The Theory of Context» must be included in the syllabus for students from theforiegn language faculties. Our tables (13–14) which were completed forstudents as HOs on the Theoretical Grammar will help them to realise thisgarammatical material in practical frames.
1.8. Grammatical material from the textbook writtenby M.Y. Blokh is very visual and inportant for students. There is no doubtthat its numerous particular propeties, as well as its fundamental qualities asa whole, will be further exposed, clarified in the course of continuedlinguistic research.
1.9. We agree with the author that «the items selectedfor study here represent the most debatable parts of morphology. It concerns,first of all, the grammatical categories of the verb». Before presenting somefacts at lecture a teacher have to transfer them according to the student'sunderstanding.
1.10. At the same time of discussion on a questionabout stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms in Modern English we,the teachers, have to expand the students’ skill in the sphere of grammaticalusage of these forms in utterances. In this case we can elicit a lot of examplesgiven by I.P. Verkhovskaya in her monograph.
1.11. All these notes are very important for our paper:they give some additional features to our subject but it is not enough forleaning in the frames of stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms.
2.1.The use of archaic variant forms in fiction, for instance, inhistorical novels, serves to characterize the speech of the times, to reproduceits atmosphere, its «couleur historique» (historical colour). Numerous archaicforms can be found in poetry (XVII–XVIII c) written by W. Shakespeare, P.B. Shelly,G.G. Byron, W. Wordsworth, etc; in Bible, but it should be taken into ourconsideration that what appear to us today as archaic forms in Shakespeare’stimes are in fact examples of their everyday language.
2.2.All these quotations present themselves the low colloquialsublanguage. These dialogues (above) may not be exactly like one’s.Writers prefer to paint their personages in words. A detailed analysis of thesenon-grammatical speech patterns show that they are elements of a system, whichis not deprived of rationality. Substandard English is used by millions ofpeople in English speaking counties. It is a conspicuous indicator of lowlanguage culture and educational level. Being introduced into books, it becomesa picturesque means of protagonist’s characterization.
2.3. Periphrasticmodals are used to communicate a lot of connotations and subtle shades andtinges. This process of activation of periphrastic modals by relating them toour speaking and writing expands possibilities and potentialities of texts anddiscourses in the fraim of their contexts. They convey the identities,knowledge, emotions, abilities, beliefs, and assumptions of the writer(speaker) and reader (hearer); association and the relationships holdingbetween them. The most striking instances of periphrastic modals presentedabove give us additional material for the practical course in the fraims of thetheoretical English grammar.
2.4.The change of the tense-forms with one and the same time referenceis a most effective stylistic devices in expressive language. Thehistorical present describes the past as if it is happening now: it conveyssomething of the dramatic immediacy of an eye-witness account. The phenomenonof present/past tense alternation is common in informal spoken narrative,conversations and letter writings.
2.5.Echo utterances are recapitulatory echo questions, explicatoryecho questions and echo exclamations. They repeat as a whole or in part whathas been said by another speaker. They may take the form of any utterance orpartial utterance in the language. The stylistic purpose is to express irony,sarcasm, incredulity, doubt, astonishment, amazement, confusion, wonder, ormerely to fill in a conversational gap.
2.6.There are a lot of the subtle meaning associated with theprogressive aspect. Syntagmatic connotative meanings of the Present Continuoussignaled by different context, linguistic or situational, may denote:expression of anger or irritation; future arising from present, arrangement,plan and programme; the imperative modality and other expressive elements. Weused literary texts to illustrate how various features of the progressiveaspect can be used in spoken English.
Transpositionof grammatical forms will lead to their synonymic encounter:
- the Past Tense and the Historical Present;
- the Future Tense and the Present Tense;
- verb-forms of the Imperative and the Present Tense, and others.
2.7.The historical past tense of «will» is «would», often reduced inspeech to «d. The combination of remoteness and likelihood as theconceptual basis of would generally leads to an interpretation of someevent as being distant in time or possibility from the moment of speaking. Theremoteness element in would, combined with the epistemic interpretation(deductions or conclusions made by the speaker) is am interpretation of pasthabitual behavior.
2.8.The important components of the peripheral field of aspect are theways of actions which find their positions in such verbal patterns as Verb+ on and on/over and over again/time and time again and syntacticreduplications.
2.9.Inchoative Aspect (ingressive aspect) expresses a focus on theonset of situations and is associated with verbs like begin and start.Correlation between morphological and semantic means can be found in theframes of the peripheral field of aspect, mood and modality.
2.10.The main function of DO is a syntactical function. Thesecond purpose of DO – using is to express the subtle shades ofsubjective modal meanings which we can found only in the speech context orsituation.
Forforeign students there are not always easy to render the precise effect of theemphatic auxiliary DO in all the variety of its idiosyncraticuse.
2.11.The stylistic range of such «phrasal» verbs is very wide. Theirdynamic character and the possibility of attaching various kind of attributesto the nominal element makes them particularly suitable for use in descriptivepictorial language, as compared to corresponding simple verbs. Highlyexpressive in meanings these «metaphors» have contributed significantly to thedevelopment of emotional and affective means in present-day English.
2.12. Inpresent-day English, especially in spoken English, these verb-phrases are foundmore frequently: scarcity in morphological devices to indicate aspect inEnglish has necessitated the development of the conventional practices.
2.13.The analysis of the distributional meaning of tense-aspect verbalforms in present-day English, brief as it is, will remind us of theconstitutional value of syntactic morphology whose subject matter is «grammarin context». Variations in the use of the tense-aspect verbal forms, theirpotential polysemy and transpositions conditioned by the mode of the speaker’srepresentation of the verbal idea are a source of constant linguistic interest.Different tense-aspect forms are not yet finaly and absolutely fixed. Makingfor greater subtle-ties and finer shades in expressing the speaker’s subjectiveattitude to the utterance functional shifts are really taking place.
3.1. The teacher must be the researcher in the grammarocean. Only in this case working with different pedagogical literatureaccording to the specific grammar task and aim sistematically and selectivelyhe or she can produce and present English grammar brightly and clearly and willbe loved by students.
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