Foudation Of Nation Essay, Research Paper
Formation of Nation
A formation of nation occurs when a state has a unified administrative reach over the territory over which its sovereignty is claimed. The development of a plurality of nations is basic to the centralization and administrative expansion of state domination internally. Therefore the nation-state, which exists in a complex of other nation-states, is a set of institutional forms of governance maintaining an administrative monopoly over an economic, political, social and cultural territory with demarcated borders, its rule being sanctioned by law and direct control of the means of internal and external violence exists when a state has a unified administrative reach over the territory over. Many states were formed at a point in time when people sharing a common history, culture, and language discovered a sense of identity. This was true in the cases of England and France, for example, which were the first nation-states to emerge in the modern period, and of Italy and Germany, which were established as nation-states in the 19th century. In contrast, however, other states, such as India, the Soviet Union, and Switzerland, came into existence without a common basis in race, culture, or language. It must also be emphasized that contemporary nation-states were creations of different historical periods and of varied circumstances. Before the close of the 19th century, the effective mobilization of governmental powers on a national basis had occurred only in Europe, the United States, and Japan.
The truest symbol of its importance is the printing press. For one thing, this invention enormously increased the resources of government, which the fact that the printing press increased the size of the educated and literate classes. Renaissance civilization thus took a quantum jump, acquiring deeper foundations than any of its predecessors or contemporaries by calling into play the intelligence of more individuals than ever before. After printing press increased, each state-nation needed to have its own vernacular language in order to represent to its nation. This is the one of necessary things in formation of nation.
Ethnic identity is an important construction in the formation of the nation, as a result of the origin of race, using vernacular language, and patriotic thought throughout the world. In 19th-century Europe, these doctrines influenced various movements for the liberation of ethnic minorities from the old European empires and led to some partially successful attempts to establish nation-states along ethnic lines, as in the case of Italy. After World War II the rising tide of democratic aspirations among the colonial peoples of Asia and Africa led to the breakup of empires established by European conquerors, sometimes in areas of enormous ethnic complexity, without regard to ethnic considerations. The result was a proliferation of national states, some of which experienced local conflicts with ethnic-related causes. Most of the countries in Asia were relatively homogeneous.
Ritual and other cultural institutions make the formation of the nation. The example of Korea, the social structure of the traditional society is described as hierarchical, class bound, based on kinship, and divided into relatively few effectively organized social groupings; its economic basis is primarily agricultural, and industry and commerce are relatively undeveloped; its political institutions are those of sacred high classes, rule by a nobility. The social system of the transitional society is typified by the formation of new classes, especially a middle class and a proletariat, and conflict among ethnic, religious, and cultural groupings; its economic system experiences major tensions as the result of technological development, the growth of industry, urbanization, and the use of rapid communications; its political institutions are typically authoritarian, although constitutional forms also make their appearance.