Реферат по предмету "Неорганическая химия"

Узнать цену реферата по вашей теме


Mechanical Properties Of Elements from

Mechanical Properties Of Elements from http://matweb.com/.


Lithium
Hardness, Vickers Max 5
Tensile Strength, Ultimate Max 15 MPa

Beryllium
Hardness, Rockwell B 75–85
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 370 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 240 MPa
Elongation at Break 3%
Modulus of Elasticity 303 GPa
Compressive Yield Strength 270 MPa Yield at 0,2% offset (10% higher than tensile yield strength)
Poisson's Ratio 0,07–0,18 values between 0,07 and 0,18 have been reported for beryllium
Charpy Impact 1,5–5,5 J (1,11–4,06 ft-lb) Notch status unknown
Fatigue Strength 160 MPa 107 cycles; Kt=3,07 and R = 0,1
Fatigue Strength 240 MPa 104 cycles; Kt=3,07 and R = 0,1
Fatigue Strength 240 MPa smooth; 107 cycles (=yield strength)
Fracture Toughness 10,6–12,3 MPa-mЅ KIC for hot-pressed structural grades
Shear Modulus 135 GPa
Shear Strength 345 MPa hot-pressed block
Shear Strength 480 MPa cross-rolled sheet

Boron (Crystalline)
Knoop Microhardness 99,9% pure is 3300 (100 g load)
9,3 Mohs
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 2,6–3,1 MPa
Compressive Yield Strength Max 0,5 MPa B2O3 inclusions
Boron (Amorphous)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 1,6–2,4 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 0,44 GPa in tension

Diamond (С)
Hardness, Knoop 8000
Knoop Microhardness 56–102 (001) face
Knoop Microhardness 58–88 (110),(111) faces
Knoop Microhardness 79 GPa
Vickers Microhardness 88–147 in GPa; (001) face
Vickers Microhardness 98 in GPa; (111) face
Hardness, Mohs 10
Abrasive Hardness 140000
Modulus of Elasticity 700–1200 GPa
Compressive Yield Strength 8680–16530 MPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,1–0,29
Fracture Toughness 3,4 MPa-mЅ

Sodium
Hardness, Vickers 0,1
Tensile Strength, Ultimate Max 10 MPa

Magnesium (Annealed Sheet)
Hardness, Brinell 40 500 kg load/10 mm ball
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 160–196 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 90–105 MPa
Elongation at Break 3–15%
Modulus of Elasticity 44 GPa
Compressive Yield Strength 69–83 MPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,35
Shear Modulus 19 GPa Calculated
Coefficient of Friction 0,36 versus magnesium at 20°C
Magnesium (Hard-Rolled Sheet)
Hardness, Brinell 46 500 kg load/10 mm ball
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 180–220 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 115–140 MPa
Elongation at Break 2–10%
Compressive Yield Strength 105–115 MPa
Magnesium (Extruded)
Hardness, Brinell 35 500 kg load/10 mm ball
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 165–205 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 69–105 MPa
Elongation at Break 5–8%
Compressive Yield Strength 34–55 MPa
Magnesium (Sand Cast)
Hardness, Brinell 30 500 kg load/10 mm ball
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 90 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 21 MPa
Elongation at Break 2–6%
Compressive Yield Strength 21 MPa

Aluminum
Hardness, Vickers 15 Annealed
Modulus of Elasticity 68 GPa
Shear Modulus 25 GPa

Silicon
Knoop Microhardness 11270 N/mm2
Modulus of Elasticity 112,4 GPa
Compressive Yield Strength 120 MPa
Bulk Modulus 98,74 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,28
Shear Modulus 49 GPa Calculated

Calcium (Annealed)
Hardness, Brinell 17
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 40 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 13,7 MPa
Elongation at Break 52%
Modulus of Elasticity 23,4 GPa
Bulk Modulus 15,2 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,31
Shear Modulus 7,38 GPa
Calcium (Rolled)
Hardness, Vickers 17 Unknown Heat Treatment
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 110 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 84,8 MPa
Elongation at Break 7%

Scandium
Hardness, Vickers 132 (0001) face
Hardness, Vickers 36 (0101) face
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 255 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 173 MPa
Elongation at Break 5%
Modulus of Elasticity 74,4 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 56,6 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,279
Shear Modulus 29,1 GPa

Titanium
Hardness, Brinell 70 electrolytic Ti
Hardness, Vickers 60
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 220 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 140 MPa
Elongation at Break 54%
Modulus of Elasticity 116 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,34

Vanadium (Vacuum Annealed Sheet)
Hardness, Brinell 137 Converted from Rockwell B, (500 kg load)
Hardness, Knoop 173 Converted from Rockwell B
Hardness, Rockwell A 51,1 Converted from Rockwell B
Hardness, Rockwell B 83
Hardness, Vickers 159 Converted from Rockwell B
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 536 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 454 MPa
Elongation at Break 20% in 50 mm
Modulus of Elasticity 125,5 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,36
Shear Modulus 46,4 GPa
Vanadium (Cold Rolled)
Hardness, Brinell 165 Converted from Vickers, (3000 kg load)
Hardness, Rockwell A 52 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell B 100
Hardness, Rockwell C 3 Converted from Vickers, Value below normal HRC range, for comparison only
Hardness, Vickers 170
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 800 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 776 MPa
Elongation at Break 2% in 50 mm
Vanadium (Hot Rolled Bar)
Hardness, Brinell 142 Converted from Rockwell B, (500 kg load)
Hardness, Knoop 180 Converted from Rockwell B
Hardness, Rockwell A 52,3 Converted from Rockwell B
Hardness, Rockwell B 85
Hardness, Vickers 165 Converted from Rockwell B
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 472 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 439 MPa
Elongation at Break 27% in 50 mm
Vanadium (Vacuum Annealed Wire)
Hardness, Brinell 126 Converted from Rockwell A (500 kg load)
Hardness, Knoop 158 Converted from Rockwell A
Hardness, Rockwell A 48
Hardness, Rockwell B 78 Converted from Rockwell A
Hardness, Vickers 141 Converted from Rockwell A
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 538 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 463 MPa
Elongation at Break 25% in 50 mm
Vanadium (Cold Drawn Wire)
Hardness, Brinell 151 Converted from Rockwell A, (500 kg load)
Hardness, Knoop 192 Converted from Rockwell A
Hardness, Rockwell A 54
Hardness, Rockwell B 88 Converted from Rockwell A
Hardness, Vickers 176 Converted from Rockwell A
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 911 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 765 MPa
Elongation at Break 6,8% in 50 mm

Chromium (Annealed)
Hardness, Brinell 80 Converted from Vickers for 500 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Knoop 102 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell B 48 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 90
Charpy Impact, Unnotched 2 J (1,48 ft-lb) Unspecified Heat Treatment
Chromium (Recrystallized)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 282 MPa
Elongation at Break 0%
Modulus of Elasticity 248 GPa
Chromium (As-Swaged)
Hardness, Brinell 125
Hardness, Knoop 144 Converted from Brinell
Hardness, Rockwell B 72 Converted from Brinell
Hardness, Vickers 131 Converted from Brinell
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 413 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 362 MPa
Elongation at Break 44%

Manganese
Hardness, Brinell 460 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 75 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell C 48 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 500
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 496 MPa ?-Phase
Tensile Strength, Yield 241 MPa ?-Phase
Modulus of Elasticity 159 GPa
Bulk Modulus 92,6 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,35
Shear Modulus 76,4 GPa

Iron
Hardness, Brinell 146 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 49
Hardness, Rockwell B 79
Hardness, Vickers 150
Tensile Strength, Yield 50 MPa 0,5% strain; after zone refining
Modulus of Elasticity 200 GPa
Bulk Modulus 166 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,291
Shear Modulus 87 GPa Calculated

Cobalt
Hardness, Brinell 125
Hardness, Vickers 253
Tensile Strength, Yield 225 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 211 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,32
Shear Modulus 82,6 GPa

Nickel (Annealed)
Hardness, Vickers 75
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 45 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 207 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,31
Shear Modulus 76 GPa
Nickel (Typical)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 317 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 59 MPa
Elongation at Break 30%
Shear Modulus 76 GPa

Copper (Annealed)
Hardness, Vickers 50
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 210 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 33,3 MPa
Elongation at Break 60%
Modulus of Elasticity 110 GPa
Bulk Modulus 140 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,343
Shear Modulus 46 GPa
Copper (Cold-Worked)
Hardness, Brinell 89 Converted from Vickers for 500 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 35
Hardness, Rockwell B 51
Hardness, Vickers 100
Bulk Modulus 140 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,35
Copper (Cold Drawn)
Hardness, Rockwell B 37
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 344 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 333,4 MPa
Elongation at Break 14%
Bulk Modulus 140 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,364

Zinc
Hardness, Vickers 30
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 37 MPa cast sample
Modulus of Elasticity 96,5 GPa

Gallium
Hardness, Vickers 50

Germanium
Knoop Microhardness 7644 N/mm2
Modulus of Elasticity 130 GPa Average of three axes
Poisson's Ratio 0,3 Calculated
Shear Modulus 50 GPa Average of three axes

Selenium
Knoop Microhardness 350 N/mm2 Gray Selenium
Modulus of Elasticity 57,9 GPa
Shear Modulus 6,46 GPa

Rubidium
Modulus of Elasticity 2,35 GPa

Strontium
Bulk Modulus 11,61 GPa

Yttrium
Hardness, Vickers 40 highly anisotropic
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 150 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 67 MPa
Elongation at Break 34% in 25 mm
Modulus of Elasticity 63,5 GPa
Bulk Modulus 41,2 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,243
Shear Modulus 25,6 GPa

Zirconium
Hardness, Brinell 145 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball, Annealed sample
Hardness, Rockwell A 49 annealed sample
Hardness, Rockwell B 78 Annealed sample
Hardness, Vickers 150 annealed sample
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 330 MPa Annealed
Tensile Strength, Yield 230 MPa Annealed
Elongation at Break 32% Annealed
Modulus of Elasticity 94,5 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,34
Shear Modulus 40 GPa Calculated

Niobium (Columbium) (Annealed Sample)
Hardness, Vickers 80
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 300 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 207 MPa
Elongation at Break 30%
Modulus of Elasticity 103 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,38
Shear Modulus 37,5 GPa
Niobium (Columbium) (Cold-Worked)
Hardness, Brinell 126 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 45
Hardness, Rockwell B 71
Hardness, Vickers 130
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 600 MPa
Niobium (Columbium) (Wrought)
Hardness, Brinell 152 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Knoop 175
Hardness, Rockwell B 81,7
Hardness, Vickers 160
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 585 MPa
Elongation at Break 5%

Molybdenum (Annealed)
Hardness, Brinell 225 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 60 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell B 98 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell C 19 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 230
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 324 MPa
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 350 MPa Single crystal
Modulus of Elasticity 330 GPa; 275 GPa at 1000°C
Compressive Yield Strength 400 MPa 0,01% Yield
Bulk Modulus 272 GPa
Shear Modulus 120 GPa
Shear Strength 500 MPa torsional strain rate 0,25/sec
Molybdenum (Recrystallized)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 415 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 300 MPa 0,2% Offset
Elongation at Break Max 40% in 50 mm
Molybdenum (Stress Relieved Condition)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 515 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 415 MPa 0,2% Offset
Elongation at Break 2–17% in 50 mm

Technetium (Annealed)
Hardness, Brinell 112
Hardness, Vickers 151
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 800 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 320 MPa 0,2% offset
Elongation at Break 30% in 25 mm
Modulus of Elasticity 322 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 281 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,31
Shear Modulus 123 GPa
Technetium (As-Rolled)
Hardness, Brinell 442
Hardness, Vickers 394
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 1510 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 1290 MPa 0,2% offset
Elongation at Break 4% in 25 mm

Ruthenium (Annealed)
Hardness, Brinell 220 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 60 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell B 96 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell C 18 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 220
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 370 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 414 GPa
Ruthenium (Hot Rolled Bar)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 540 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 414 GPa

Rhodium (Annealed)
Hardness, Brinell 89 Converted from Vickers for 500 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 35 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell B 51 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 100
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 951 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 359 GPa
Rhodium (As-Plated)
Hardness, Brinell 722 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 83 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell C 63 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 800
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 700 MPa
Rhodium (Hardened)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 2068 MPa

Palladium
Hardness, Vickers 37 Annealed
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 180 MPa Annealed
Modulus of Elasticity 117 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,39
Shear Modulus 49 GPa Calculated

Silver
Hardness, Vickers 25 Annealed
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 140 MPa Annealed
Modulus of Elasticity 76 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,37 Annealed
Poisson's Ratio 0,39 Hard drawn
Shear Modulus 32 GPa Calculated; Annealed

Cadmium
Hardness, Brinell 16–24
Hardness, Vickers 22
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 75 MPa
Elongation at Break 50% in 25 mm
Modulus of Elasticity 55,2 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,33
Shear Modulus 19,2 GPa

Indium
Hardness, Brinell 0,9
Hardness, Vickers Max 10
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 4,5 MPa Annealed
Modulus of Elasticity 12,7 GPa in tension
Compressive Yield Strength 2,14 MPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,4498
Shear Modulus 5 GPa Calculated

Tin
Hardness, Brinell 3,9
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 220 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 41,4 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,33
Shear Modulus 18 GPa Calculated

Antimony
Hardness, Brinell 30–58
Hardness, Vickers 30–60
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 11,4 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 77,759 GPa
Shear Modulus 19 GPa

Tellurium
Hardness, Brinell 25
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 11 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 40 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,33
Shear Modulus 15,16 GPa

Cesium
Bulk Modulus 1,57 GPa

Barium
Modulus of Elasticity 12,8 GPa
Bulk Modulus 10,2 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,28
Shear Modulus 6 GPa Calculated

Lanthanum
Hardness, Vickers 28
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 130 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 125 MPa
Elongation at Break 7,9%
Modulus of Elasticity 36,6 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 27,9 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,28
Shear Modulus 14,3 GPa

Cerium
Hardness, Vickers 24
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 100 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 91 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 41,4 GPa
Bulk Modulus 21,5 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,248
Shear Modulus 13,5 GPa

Praseodymium
Hardness, Vickers 20
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 110 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 100 MPa
Elongation at Break 15%
Modulus of Elasticity 37,3 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 28,8 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,281
Shear Modulus 14,8 GPa

Neodymium
Hardness, Vickers 18
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 170 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 165 MPa
Elongation at Break 25%
Modulus of Elasticity 41,4 GPa
Bulk Modulus 31,8 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,281
Shear Modulus 16,3 GPa

Promethium
Hardness, Knoop 63
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 160 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 70 MPa
Elongation at Break 25%
Modulus of Elasticity 50 GPa (tension)
Bulk Modulus 33 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,28
Shear Modulus 18 GPa

Samarium
Hardness, Vickers 39
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 120–156 MPa different sources report in this range
Tensile Strength, Yield 68–112 MPa
Elongation at Break 17%
Modulus of Elasticity 49,7 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 37,8 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,274
Shear Modulus 19,5 GPa

Europium
Hardness, Vickers 17
Modulus of Elasticity 18,2 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 8,3 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,152
Shear Modulus 7,9 GPa

Gadolinium
Hardness, Vickers 37 polycrystalline
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 190 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 173 MPa
Elongation at Break 37%
Modulus of Elasticity 54,8 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 37,9 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,259
Shear Modulus 24 GPa Calculated

Terbium
Hardness, Vickers 38 polycrystalline
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 140 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 60 MPa
Elongation at Break 12%
Modulus of Elasticity 55,7 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 38,7 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,26 Calculated
Shear Modulus 22,1 GPa

Dysprosium
Hardness, Vickers 44
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 246 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 225 MPa
Elongation at Break 30%
Modulus of Elasticity 61,4 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 40,5 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,237
Shear Modulus 24,7 GPa

Holmium
Hardness, Vickers 46
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 259 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 221 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 64,8 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 40,2 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,231
Shear Modulus 26,3 GPa

Erbium
Hardness, Vickers 42
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 136 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 60 MPa
Elongation at Break 11,5%
Reduction of Area 11,9%
Modulus of Elasticity 69,9 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 44,4 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,237
Shear Modulus 28,3 GPa

Thulium
Hardness, Vickers 48
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 140 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 60 MPa
Elongation at Break 12%
Modulus of Elasticity 74 GPain tension
Bulk Modulus 44,5 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,213
Shear Modulus 30,5 GPa

Ytterbium
Hardness, Vickers 17
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 72 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 66 MPa
Elongation at Break 43%
Modulus of Elasticity 23,7 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 30,5 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,207
Shear Modulus 9,9 GPa

Lutetium
Hardness, Vickers 44
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 140 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 60 MPa
Elongation at Break 12%
Modulus of Elasticity 68,6 GPa in tension
Bulk Modulus 47,6 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,261
Shear Modulus 27,2 GPa

Hafnium (Rod)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 485 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 240 MPa
Elongation at Break 25%
Hafnium (Plate)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 450 MPa Longitudinal
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 470 MPa Transverse
Tensile Strength, Yield 195 MPa Longitudinal
Tensile Strength, Yield 310 MPa Transverse
Elongation at Break 25% Longitudinal or Transverse
Hafnium (Strip)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 450 MPa Longitudinal or Transverse
Tensile Strength, Yield 170 MPa Longitudinal
Tensile Strength, Yield 275 MPa Transverse
Elongation at Break 30% Longitudinal or Transverse

Tantalum (Annealed)
Hardness, Brinell 95 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 35 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell B 51 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 100
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 450 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 186 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,35
Fatigue Strength 230 MPa 50,000,000 cycles, E-beam melted sample; rotating beam test,
Shear Modulus 69 GPa
Tantalum (Cold Worked)
Hardness, Brinell 195 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 56 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell B 92 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell C 12 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 200
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 900 MPa

Tungsten
Hardness, Brinell 294 Estimated from Vickers
Hardness, Knoop 318 Estimated from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell A 66 Estimated from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell C 31 Estimated from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 310
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 980 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 750 MPa 0,2% Offset
Modulus of Elasticity 400 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,28
Shear Modulus 175 GPa Calculated
Shear Strength 400 MPa Average value for W blanks
Tungsten (drawn wire)
Hardness, Brinell 444 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test Drawn and annealed
Hardness, Knoop 505 Estimated from Vickers,
Hardness, Rockwell A 74 Drawn and annealed
Hardness, Rockwell C 47 Drawn and annealed
Hardness, Vickers 480 Drawn and annealed
Tensile Strength, Yield 450 MPa

Rhenium (Annealed)
Hardness, Brinell 165 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 52 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell B 85 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell C 3 Value below normal HRC range, for comparison only
Hardness, Vickers 170
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 1070 MPa Value at 800°C is 620 MPa, Value at 1200°C is 410 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 290 MPa
Elongation at Break 15–25%
Modulus of Elasticity 469 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,296
Shear Modulus 176 GPa
Rhenium (Deformed)
Hardness, Brinell 500 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 76 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell C 50 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 550 15% Cold-Worked
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 2100 MPa
Elongation at Break 1–3%
Modulus of Elasticity 460 GPa

Osmium (Annealed)
Hardness, Brinell 293 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 66 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell C 30 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 300
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 1000 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 560 GPa
Osmium (Cold-Worked)
Hardness, Brinell 580 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 80
Hardness, Rockwell C 57
Hardness, Vickers 670
Osmium (Arc-Melted)
Hardness, Brinell 722 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Knoop 822 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell A 83,4 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell C 64 Converted from Vickers
Hardness, Vickers 800

Iridium (Annealed)
Hardness, Brinell 352 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 69
Hardness, Rockwell C 37
Hardness, Vickers 370
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 1000 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 524 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,26
Shear Modulus 232 GPa Calculated
Iridium (Cold-Drawn)
Hardness, Brinell 565 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 80
Hardness, Rockwell C 56
Hardness, Vickers 650
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 2000 MPa

Platinum (CP Grade, Annealed)
Hardness, Vickers 40
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 125–165 MPa
Elongation at Break 35% in 50 mm
Modulus of Elasticity 171 GPa static in tension
Poisson's Ratio 0,39
Shear Modulus 62 GPa Calculated value
Platinum (CP Grade, Hard Drawn–50% Cold Worked)
Hardness, Knoop 103 Estimated from Vickers,
Hardness, Rockwell B 49 Estimated from Vickers,
Hardness, Vickers 90
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 205–240 MPa
Elongation at Break 1–3% in 50 mm
Modulus of Elasticity 156 GPa static in tension
Shear Modulus 56 GPa Calculated value
Platinum (Thermocouple Quality, Annealed)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 143 MPa

Gold
Hardness, Vickers 25
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 120 MPa Annealed
Elongation at Break 30%
Modulus of Elasticity 77,2 GPa 60% Cold Worked
Poisson's Ratio 0,42
Shear Modulus 32 GPa 60% Cold Worked; Calculated Value

Thallium
Hardness, Brinell 2
Hardness, Vickers 2
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 7,5 MPa
Elongation at Break 40% in 125 mm

Lead
Hardness, Brinell 4,2 Cast
Hardness, Vickers 5
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 18 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity 14 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,42

Bismuth
Hardness, Brinell 7
Modulus of Elasticity 31,7 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,33
Shear Modulus 14 GPa Calculated

Thorium
Hardness, Vickers 35–114 References report a wide range of values
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 200 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 144 MPa 0,2% offset
Elongation at Break 34%
Modulus of Elasticity 73,1 GPa
Compressive Yield Strength 200 MPa Approximately equal to tensile
Bulk Modulus 57,7 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,27
Fatigue Strength 97 MPa reversed bend test endurance limit
Shear Modulus 28 GPa

Protactinium
Bulk Modulus 157 GPa

Uranium (Cast)
Hardness, Brinell 185 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test Unspecified heat treatment
Hardness, Rockwell A 55 Unspecified heat treatment
Hardness, Rockwell B 90 Unspecified heat treatment
Hardness, Rockwell C 10 Unspecified heat treatment
Hardness, Vickers 190 Unspecified heat treatment
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 400 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 200 MPa
Elongation at Break 4%
Modulus of Elasticity 190 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,22
Shear Modulus 86 GPa Calculated
Uranium (Beta-Annealed)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 615 MPa
Uranium (Wrought ? Phase)
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 1150 MPa
Tensile Strength, Yield 740 MPa
Elongation at Break 14%

Neptunium
Hardness, Vickers 346
Bulk Modulus 118 GPa
Shear Modulus 80 GPa

Plutonium
Hardness, Brinell 242 Converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load/10 mm ball Brinell test
Hardness, Rockwell A 62
Hardness, Rockwell C 22
Hardness, Vickers 250
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 400 MPa Cast ?
Tensile Strength, Yield 275 MPa Cast ?
Elongation at Break 0,2–0,5% Cast ?
Modulus of Elasticity 96,5 GPa Cast
Compressive Yield Strength 415 MPa
Ultimate Compressive Strength 830 MPa
Poisson's Ratio 0,15–0,21
Fatigue Strength 90 MPa 100,000,000 cycles, rotating beam
Shear Modulus 45 GPa

Americium
Bulk Modulus 45 GPa

Curium
Bulk Modulus 37 GPa

Berkelium
Bulk Modulus 52 GPa

Californium
Bulk Modulus 50 GPa

Einsteinium
Bulk Modulus 15 GPa Estimated

Fermium
Bulk Modulus 15 GPa Estimated



Mineral Hardness (by Mohs) from
Г. В. Самсонов. Справочник "Свойства элементов".В 2 т. Москва, 1976 г.



Symbol Mohs HM
Li 0,6
Be 5,5
B 9,3
Diamond (С) 10
Na 0,5
Mg 2,5
Al 2,75
Si 6,5
S 2
K 0,4
Ca 1,75
Ti 6
V 7
Cr 8,5
Symbol Mohs HM
Mn 6
Fe 4
Co 5
Ni 4
Cu 3
Zn 2,5
Ga 1,5
Ge 6
As 3,5
Se 2
Rb 0,3
Sr 1,5
Zr 5
Nb 6
Mo 5,5
Ru 6,5
Rh 6
Pd 4,75
Ag 2,5
Cd 2
In 1,2
Sn 1,5
Sb 3
Te 2,25
Cs 0,2
Ba 1,25
La 2,5
Ce 2,5
Hf 5,5
Ta 6,5
W 7,5
Re 7
Os 7
Ir 6,5
Pt 3,5
Au 2,5
Tl 1,2
Pb 1,5
Bi 2,25
Th 3
U 6






6


Не сдавайте скачаную работу преподавателю!
Данный реферат Вы можете использовать для подготовки курсовых проектов.

Доработать Узнать цену написания по вашей теме
Поделись с друзьями, за репост + 100 мильонов к студенческой карме :

Пишем реферат самостоятельно:
! Как писать рефераты
Практические рекомендации по написанию студенческих рефератов.
! План реферата Краткий список разделов, отражающий структура и порядок работы над будующим рефератом.
! Введение реферата Вводная часть работы, в которой отражается цель и обозначается список задач.
! Заключение реферата В заключении подводятся итоги, описывается была ли достигнута поставленная цель, каковы результаты.
! Оформление рефератов Методические рекомендации по грамотному оформлению работы по ГОСТ.

Читайте также:
Виды рефератов Какими бывают рефераты по своему назначению и структуре.

Сейчас смотрят :

Реферат Создание и развитие системы репрессивных органов в советский период
Реферат Система таможенных органов РФ
Реферат Социальные, экономические и политические последствия привлечения инсотранных инвестиций в экономику принимающих стран
Реферат Транснациональные корпорации (ТНК)
Реферат Трагическая судьба заплутавшего человека
Реферат Современные тенденции развития рынка ценных бумаг в России
Реферат Удаление сточных вод
Реферат Товароведение пушно-меховых и овчинно-шубных товаров
Реферат Українська держава П. Скоропадського
Реферат Сложности, возникающие при оценке малых предприятий
Реферат Рынок продаж автомобильных дисков по городу Санкт-Петербургу и области
Реферат Финансовая политика РФ. Мировая финансовая политика
Реферат Финансовый контроль и его роль
Реферат Рекомендации КАК НАПИСАТЬ ДИПЛОМ? в техническом ВУЗе
Реферат Роль иностранных инвестиций в развитии экономики КНР