ADVERBS The word adverb suggested the idea of adding to the meaning of a verb. This is what many adverbs do. They can tell us something about the action in a sentence by modifying a verb, i.e. by telling us how, when, where, etc. something happens or is done: He played the piano beautifully. However, adverbs can also modify: adjectives: very good; awfully hungry; other adverbs: very soon; awfully quickly; prepositional phrases:
You’re entirely in the wrong. complete sentences: Strangely enough, I won first prize. nouns: The man over there is a doctor. Adverbs can be single words (slowly) or phrases (in the garden) and the term adverbial is often used to describe both types. The comparison of adverbs. Only gradable adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms.
Comparison is not possible with such adverbs as daily, extremely, only, really, then, there, uniquely, because they are not gradable. Gradable adverbs form comparatives and superlatives as follows: 1. Same form as adjective: fast faster the fastest 2. –ly adverbs of manner: easily more easily the most easily 3. Some adverbs of frequency: rarely more rarely the most rarely 4. Exceptions: badly worse the worst far farther the farthest further the furthest late later the last
little less the least much more the most well better the best Note: 1. Many adverbs like early, fast, etc. form their comparatives and superlatives in the same way as shorter adjectives (earlier, earliest). 2. As most adverbs of manner have two or more syllables, they form their comparatives with more/less and most/least. Other examples: more/less/most/least briefly, clearly, quickly.
3. Some adverbs of frequency form their comparative and superlative with more/less, most/least (e.g. more seldom, the most seldom); often has two comparative forms: more often and (less common) oftener. 4. I bought the latest (i.e. most recent) edition of today’s newspaper. I bought the last (i.e. final) edition of today’s newspaper.
But normally only last is used as an adverb: That was a personal question, so he answered it last. It can be used before the main verb: It last rained two weeks ago. (= The last time it rained was…) Exercise 65. Fill in the blanks with the required degree of comparison of the adverbs in brackets: 1. He brought me some magazines the kind I liked … (well). 2. I’ll talk to you … (late). When will you return home?
3. I’m afraid she’s … (awfully) busy this evening. 4. You are too perceptive. I find that people usually do what you want them to do far … (quickly) if they are needled emotionally. 5. I’m … (much) pleased to see you. 6. … (far) back, in the shade of a great oak, two girls in shorts were playing tennis. 7. The … (much) I thought about him the worse became the uneasy that comes before fainting.
8. “How were you responsible ?” She hung her head still … (low). 9. He is much more serious than he was. He takes everything … (seriously). 10. Charles laughed, and Maria knew from the sound of the laugh that Celia had not made things any (well), only (badly). Adverbial comparisons can be made with the following: as…as:
She speaks as loudly as her mother. not as/so…as: He can’t draw as/so well as you (can). …than: The rain cleared more quickly than I expected. the…the: The faster I type, the more mistakes I make. …and…: It rained more and more heavily. comparative: Tom runs faster than his friends. superlative: Ann tries the hardest of all the girls in her group.
Exercise 66. Translate from Russian into English: 1. Мы пошли ещё дальше, но заблудились. 2. Она плавает быстрее, чем её подруги. 3. Сара учится усерднее всех нас. 4. Чем ближе сессия, тем меньше времени на развлечения. 5. Я не умею бегать так быстро как ты. 6. Она одевается так же модно, как и её тётя. 7. Время летело всё быстрее и быстрее, но Пол всё не брался за учебники.
8. Чем смелее ты будешь вести себя, тем быстрее она обратит на тебя внимание. 9. Он пришёл быстрее, чем мы ожидали. 10. Машина ехала всё быстрее и быстрее. 11. Она говорит на английском так же хорошо, как и её сестра. 12. Чем больше мы сделаем сегодня, тем меньше нам придётся делать завтра. Kinds of adverbs. 1. Adverbs of manner. Position of adverbs of manner.
Adverbs of manner: after the object or after the verb. The most usual position of adverbs of manner is after the object or after the verb: - after the object: Tom watched the lion curiously. Look at that man carefully. - after the verb: It rained heavily last week. - after an adverb particle: He took the picture down carefully. The important thing is not to put the adverb between the verb and
its object. (Not ‘He speaks well English’). But even this is possible if the object is very long: We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us. Adverbs of manner: between subject and verb. One-word adverbs of manner can sometimes go between the subject and the verb. (This rarely applies to adverbial phrases.) If we wish to emphasize the subject of the verb, we can say:
John angrily slammed the door behind Rachel. (I.e. John was angry when he slammed the door.) However, well and badly, when used to evaluate an action, can only go at the end of a sentence or clause: Mr. Smith pays his staff very well/badly. With some adverbs of manner, such as bravely, cleverly, cruelly, foolishly, generously, kindly, secretly, simply, a change of position results in a difference in emphasis.
Compare the following: He foolishly locked himself out. (It was foolish (of him) to…) He behaved foolishly at the party. (= in a foolish manner) With others, such as badly, naturally, a change of position results in a change in meaning and function: You typed this letter very badly. (adverb of manner) We badly need a new typewriter. (intensifier) You should always speak naturally. (adverb of manner)
Naturally, I’ll accept the invitation. (viewpoint adverb) Adverbs of manner: beginning a sentence. In narrative writing (but not normally in speech) sentences can begin with adverbs of manner, such as gently, quietly, slowly, suddenly. It is done for dramatic effect, or to create suspense. Such adverbs are followed by a comma: O’Connor held his breath and stood quite still.
Quietly, he moved forwards to get a better view. Exercise 67. Choose the correct answer: 1. The actors can get (close to the audience, to the audience close). 2. Olga speaks (very well Spanish, Spanish very well). 3. Tom was jumping (on the window-seat up and down, up and down on the window- seat). 4. Do you want (white or black your coffee, your coffee white or black)?
5. He cried (yesterday bitterly, bitterly yesterday). 6. They played (hockey very badly, very badly hockey). 7. We could see (very well, an interesting scene in the distance, an interesting scene in the distance very well). 8. I understand (you easily, easily you). Exercise 68. Translate into English: 1. Им было очень холодно.
2. Она говорила с нами холодно. 3. Его слова звучали холодно. 4. Лось упал замертво. 5. Они упали на землю смертельно усталые. 6. Она смертельно побледнела. 7. Он молча кивнул. 8. Мы шли молча. 9. Стены покрашены плохо. 10. Она чувствовала себя плохо вчера. 11. Она приятно улыбнулась. 12. Мне приятно разговаривать с вами.
13. Она хорошо выглядит. 14. Дело идёт хорошо. 15. Хорошо, что они придут. 16. Как ты думаешь сделать это? – Очень просто. 17. Не бойся, ты сделаешь это. Это очень просто. 18. Вполне естественно, что она ему нравится. 19. Он отреагировал совершенно естественно. 2. Adverbs of place.
Position of adverbs of place. Adverbs of place never go between subject and verb. Adverbs of place: after manner but before time. When there is more than one kind of adverb in a sentence, the usual position of adverbs of place is after manner, but before time (following a verb or verb + object): manner place time Barbara read quietly in the library all afternoon. However, adverbs of direction can often come after movement verbs (come, drive, go) and before other
adverbials: He went to Minsk (direction) by train (manner) three days ago (time). If there is more than one adverb of place, then ‘smaller places’ are mentioned before ‘bigger places’ in ascending order: He lives in a white house (1) in a village (2) outside Reading (3) in Berkshire (4), England (5). Adverbs of place: beginning a sentence. If we wish to emphasize location (e.g. for contrast), we may begin with an adverb of location, especially
in descriptive writing: Indoors it was nice and warm. Outside it was raining heavily. To avoid ambiguity, the initial position is usual when there is more than one adverbial of place: On many large farms, farm workers live in tied cottages. Exercise 69. Translate from Russian into English: 1. Три дня назад он приехал из Киева на автобусе. 2. Они живут на окраине города, в небольшом домике, где-
то в Гомельской области. 3. Снаружи шёл сильный снег, но внутри было тепло. 4. Весь вечер она читала книгу в гостиной. 5. Каждый день она ходит на работу пешком. 6. Мы идём в кино с друзьями. 7. Во многих странах люди не одобряют эту войну. 8. Она впервые встретила его в Минске, в театре, в фойе. 9. Я работаю недалеко от дома в небольшой фирме. 10.
Она разбила на кухне тарелку. 11. В Москве сейчас полночь. 12. В нашем дворе много детей. 3. Adverbs of time. Position of adverbs of time. Position of adverbs of definite time. Two main categories of adverbs of definite time can be defined: 1.‘Points of time’ such as today, tomorrow, yesterday, etc.
These can be modified be the words early, earlier, late and later. 2. Prepositional phrases which function as adverbials of time. They often begin with at, in or on: e.g. in May, at 3 o’clock. The most usual position is at the very end of a sentence: I bought this book yesterday. Definite time references can also be made at the beginning:
This morning I had a telephone call from Jack. If there is more than one time reference, we usually progress from the particular to the general, i.e. time + day + date + year: He was born at 15.15 on Tuesday April 9th 1996. Position of adverbs of indefinite time. The following adverbs usually come at the end of a sentence, although they can also come before the end and (usually to focus interest or for contrast) at the beginning of a sentence: afterwards, eventually,
formerly, immediately, lately, once, presently, recently, soon, subsequently, suddenly, then, ultimately: I went to London recently. I recently went to London. When the verb is be, these adverbs usually come after it: I was recently in London. Early and late come at the end of a sentence or clause: We went to the theatre too early/late for the performance.
Another day/time, one day (referring to past or future), some day (referring to future), can come at the beginning or the end: Some day I’ll show them! I’ll show them some day. Exercise 70. Choose the correct answer: 1. I didn’t see you (last night there, there last night). 2. Mary did her homework (last night very quickly, very quickly last night).
3. The children have been playing (this afternoon football in the park, football in the park this afternoon). 4. My husband and I went (to our son’s school yesterday, yesterday to our son’s school). 5. I think I will go (early to bed tonight, to bed early tonight). 6. Even the most remote places are visited (nowadays by tourists, by tourists nowadays). 7. She can play (now the piano very well, the piano very well now).
8. My children? They are (all adults now, now are adults). 9. I washed (my dog yesterday, yesterday my dog). Position and use of ‘still’. Still, referring to time, emphasizes continuity. It is mainly used in questions and affirmatives, often with progressive tenses. Its position is the same as for adverbs of indefinite frequency:
Mr. Brown is still at work. I’m still waiting for her letter. John still works for the Council. For special emphasis, it can come before an auxiliary: Tom still is in hospital, you know. Used after the subject in negative sentences, still can express dissatisfaction or surprise: I still haven’t heard from her. (Compare I haven’t heard from her yet, which is neutral.) Position and use of ‘already’.
Already is not normally used in negative sentences. Its position is the same as for adverbs of indefinite frequency, though it can also come at the end: This dress is already out of date. It is out of date already. He has already seen the film. He has seen it already. John already knows the truth. He knows it already.
For special emphasis it can come before an auxiliary: You’d better read the book. – I already have (read). In the end position, already can emphasize ‘sooner than expected’: Don’t tell me you’ve eaten it already! Position and use of ‘yet’. Yet generally comes at the end in questions and negatives:
Have you passed your driving test yet? Haven’t you passed your driving test yet? He hasn’t passed his driving test yet. In negatives, yet can come before the main verb: He hasn’t yet passed his driving test. Yet is often used after not in short negative answers: Has the film finished? – No, not yet. Before an infinitive, yet has almost the same meaning as still: Who’ll be appointed? – It’s yet/still to be decided. ‘Yet’ and ‘already’ compared.
Both these adverbs are commonly used with perfect tenses, though in AmE they commonly occur with the past: Have you seen ‘Tosca’ yet? – I’ve already seen it. (BrE) Did you see ‘Tosca’ yet? – I already saw it. (AmE) We use yet in questions when we want information: Have you received your invitation yet? (I.e. I don’t know.)
We sometimes use already when we want confirmation: Have you already received your invitation? (I.e. Please confirm.) Position and use of ‘just’. Just (referring to time) has the same position as for adverbs of indefinite frequency and is used: with perfect tenses to mean ‘during a very short period before now or before then’: I’ve just finished reading the book. I saw him yesterday.
He had just come out of hospital. with the past, especially in AmE, to mean ‘a very short time ago’: I just saw Mary. She was going to the shop. to refer to the immediate future, with progressive tenses or will: Wait. I’m just coming. I’ll just put my coat on. Just has other meanings, e.g. ‘that and nothing else’: How do I work this? – You just turn on that switch.
Exercise 71. Translate from Russian into English: 1. Ты уже покрасил пол в комнате? 2. Я просто хочу включить свет. 3. Ты ещё не съел суп? 4. Я всё ещё думаю о нашем плане. 5. Я уже много раз говорил тебе об этом. 6. Я только что сварила кофе. 7. Ты всё выучил? – Нет ещё. 8. Да я всё ёще ничего о ней не знаю!
9. Я просто хочу знать, что ты задумал. 10. Ты ещё спишь? 11. Ты уже знаешь о их свадьбе? 12. Мы ещё ничего не решили, поэтому мне нечего сказать. Exercise 72. Put the adverbs in brackets in their proper places: 1. Aren’t you ready? (yet) 2. I have won two tennis championships. (already) 3. He doesn’t understand the rule? (still) 4. My brother and
I live at home. (still) 5. My younger brother has finished school. (just) 6. What’s the matter? He is in bed! (still) 7. I am going for a walk. (just) 8. I know she said she was sorry, but I am angry. (still) 9. They haven’t finished breakfast. (yet) 10. I have seen the dean. (just) 11. It started snowing two hours ago and it is snowing. (still) 12.
Has he learnt everything about it? (yet) 4. Adverbials of duration. Position of adverbials of duration. Duration (periods of time) can be expressed by adverbs (e.g. ago, all (day) long, (not) any more, (not) any longer, no longer, no more), and by prepositional phrases functioning as adverbials (beginning with e.g. by, during, for, from… to/till, since, throughout). ‘Since’ and ‘ago’. Since combines with points of time to answer the question
Since when? It is often associated with the present perfect to mark the beginning of a period lasting till now, or with the past perfect to mark the beginning of a period lasting till then: I haven’t seen Mary since last month. I met Tom yesterday. I hadn’t seen him since May. Since can be used as an adverb on its own: I saw Tom in May, but I haven’t seen him since. Period of time + ago (answering
How long ago? or When?) marks the start of a period going back from now: I saw him six month ago. Note that since is placed before the point of time it refers to; ago is placed after the period it refers to. ‘For’. For (+ period of time, answering How long?) marks the duration of a period of time in the past or in the future, or up to the present: The Browns lived there for three years. (They no longer live here.)
The Browns have lived here for five years. (They are still here.) For combines with e.g. ages, hours, days, weeks, month, years to emphasize or exaggerate duration: I haven’t seen her for ages. In affirmative sentences with a ‘continuity verb’ like be, live, work etc. for is often omitted when the verb is present perfect or past: Tom has been (or has lived, has worked) here (for) a month.
Sometimes for can be omitted in future reference: I’ll be (or stay, work) in Greece (for) two years. For cannot be omitted in negative sentences or when it comes at the beginning of a sentence or clause: I haven’t seen them for a year. For a year, they lived in the USA. ‘From…to/till/until’. From…to/till/until refer to a definite period:
The school year runs from September to/till June. From can be omitted informally with till but not usually with to: He is at his office (from) nine till five. (but from nine to five). ‘By’, ‘till/until’ and ‘not…till/until’. Till (or until) and by means ‘any time before and not later then’. When we use ‘continuity verbs’ which indicate a period of time (e.g. stay, wait) we can only use till/until
(not by): I’ll stay here till/until Sunday. I won’t stay here till/until Sunday. Will you stay here till/until Sunday? When we use verbs, which indicate a point of time (e.g. finish, leave), we can only use till/until in the negative: I won’t leave till/until Sunday. (= on Sunday, not before) We can only use by with point of time verbs, so we can say:
I’ll have left by Sunday. (= any time before and not later then) I won’t have left by Sunday. (= I’ll still be here on Sunday) ‘During’, ‘in’ and ‘throughout’. During, always followed by a noun, can refer to a whole period: It was very cold during the winter. or to points during the course of a period: She has phoned five times during the last hour. In (= within a period) can replace during in the above
examples. Vagueness can be emphasized by the use of some time + during: I posted it some time during (not in) the week. During cannot be replaced by in when we refer to an event or activity rather than to a period of time: He didn’t learn much during his teacher training. Throughout can replace in or during if we wish to emphasize ‘from the beginning to the end of a whole period’:
There were thunderstorms throughout June. During or throughout (not in) can combine with e.g. the whole, the entire to emphasize that something happened over a period: During the whole/ the entire winter she never saw a soul. ‘All (day) long’, ‘(not) any more’. All … long emphasizes duration and is commonly used with words like day and night. Long gives extra emphasis and is optional: It snowed all night (long).
Not … any more, not … any longer and no longer are used to show that an action with duration has stopped or must stop. They come at the end of a sentence or clause: Hurry up! I can’t wait any longer /any more. No longer can come before a full verb or at the end of a sentence, though the end position is sometimes slightly more formal: I’m sorry, Professor Brown no longer lives here. Exercise 73.
Translate from Russian into English: 1. С трёх до пяти меня не будет дома. 2. Дождь шёл всю ночь. 3. Весь Май стояла чудесная погода. 4. Встретимся здесь через два часа. 5. Я не уйду пока не съем торт. 6. Они жили там три дня. 7. Я знаю его с детства. 8. Пять дней назад ты говорил, что любишь её. 9. Сожалею, но он больше здесь не работает.
10. Он закончил работу к вечеру. 11. С каких пор ты здесь живёшь? 12. В течение всего лета было мало дождей. 5. Adverbs of frequency. a) Adverbs of definite frequency and their position. These include words and phrases like the following: once, twice; three/several times (a day/week/month/year); hourly/daily/weekly/fortnightly/monthly/ yearly/annually; every (day/week/month/year), every (morning/afternoon/evening/night); and in combinations
like every other day, every three years, every few days, every third day; on Mondays/weekdays, etc. These adverbials usually come at the end of a sentence: There is a collection from this letterbox twice daily. Some of them can also begin a sentence, just like adverbs of time. This may be necessary to avoid ambiguity: Once a month we visit our son who is at
Oxford University. Avoids the ambiguity of: We visit our son who is at Oxford University once a month. The –ly adverbs (hourly, daily, etc.) are not normally used to begin sentences. b) Adverbs of indefinite frequency. These adverbs give general answers to How often? Here are some of the most common, arranged on a ‘scale of frequency’: always (i.e. ‘all of the time’); almost always, nearly always; generally, normally, regularly, usually; frequently, often;
sometimes, occasionally; almost never, hardly ever, rarely, scarcely ever, seldom; not … ever, never (i.e. ‘none of the time’). Negative frequency adverbs (almost never, hardly, scarcely, barely) cannot be used with not: I hardly ever see him these days. Other adverbials that suggest indefinite frequency are again and again; at times; every so often; (every) now and again; from time to time; (every) now and then; and ordinary –ly adverbs such as constantly,
continually, continuously, repeatedly. Position of adverbs of indefinite frequency. Adverbs of frequency: affirmatives/questions: mid-position. The normal position of most adverbs of indefinite frequency is ‘after an auxiliary or before a full verb’. This means: after be when it is the only verb in a sentence: I was never very good at chemistry. after the first auxiliary verb when there is more than one verb:
You can always come here with your friends. before the main verb when there is only one verb: He often goes to the cinema with us. These adverbs usually come before used to, have to and ought to: They never used to import so much sugar. They can also come before a to-infinitive, though this is formal: You ought always to check the information you use in your articles. In questions, these adverbs usually come after the subject:
Do you usually have sugar in your tea? Adverbs of frequency: negative sentences: mid-position. Not must come before always and it commonly comes before generally, normally, often, regularly and usually: He isn’t always very reliable. She doesn’t usually do her homework in the morning. Not must come after sometimes and frequently: She is sometimes not responsible for what she does. Some frequency adverbials such as almost always, nearly always and occasionally are not used in the
negative. Adverbs of frequency: end position. ‘Affirmative adverbs’ can be used at the end of a sentence: I get paid on Fridays usually. We can use often at the end in questions and negatives: Do you come here often? I don’t come here often. Always may occur at the end, but in the sense of ‘for ever’: I’ll love you always. The ‘negative adverbs’ rarely and seldom can sometimes occur at the end, especially when modified by only or very: Nowadays, we come there only rarely.
Adverbs of frequency: beginning a sentence. Where special emphasis or contrast is required, the following can begin a sentence: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, ordinarily, sometimes and usually: Sometimes we get a lot of snow in January. Often is generally preceded by quite or very when it is used for emphasis at the beginning of a sentence: Quite/very often she comes when I’m in the bath. Always and never can be used at the beginning in imperatives:
Always tell the truth. Never tell lies. Adverbs of frequency: ‘ever’ and ‘never’. Ever, meaning ‘at any time’, is used in questions: Have you ever been to Tokyo? We can use ever after any- and no- indefinite pronouns: Does anyone ever visit her? Nothing ever bothers them. Ever can occur in affirmative if-sentences and after hardly, scarcely and barely:
If you ever need any help, you know where to find us. I hardly ever see her these days. Never is used in negative sentences and frequently replaces not when we wish to strengthen a negative. Compare: I don’t smoke. I never smoke. The negative not… ever may be used in preference to never for extra emphasis in promises, warnings, etc.: I promise you, she won’t ever come here!
Adverbs of frequency before auxiliaries. Adverbs of indefinite frequency can be used before auxiliaries (be, have, do, can, must, etc.) when we want to place special emphasis on the verb, which is usually heavily stressed in speech: It’s just like Tom. He always is late. You never can rely on him. We often use this word order in short responses, especially to agree with or contradict something that has just been said: Tom is late again. –
Yes, he always is. Note this use when do, does and did replace a full verb: His son never helps him. – No, he never does. - But he always does! A response of this kind can be part of a single statement: John promises to keep his word, but he never does. The same kind of emphasis can be made with more than one verb:
John never should have joined the army. Exercise 74. Put the adverbs in brackets in the correct place: 1. Тоm is late for classes. (never) 2. They have dinner at two o’clock. (usually) 3. She goes to bed at twelve o’clock. (seldom) 4. I speak English with my son. (often) 5. They work in the lab after their lessons. (always) 6.
Do you think that he is ill? (still) 7. I think he is at home. (already) 8. I see them in the park. (sometimes) 9. They come to this place. (seldom) 10. Do you do your homework in the library? (often) 11. I can understand you. (never) 12. The article has been translated. (already) 13. He has a few mistakes in his test. (always) 14. He can agree to that. (never) 15.
They have seven lessons a day. (usually) 16. Mrs. Reeds’ daughter is ill. (often) 17. You are kind to him. (always) 18. I meet her in the library. (seldom) 19. I am very busy. (generally) 20. She will believe it, I’m sure. (never) 21. My friend stays long with us. (seldom) 22. We are going for a walk. (just) 23. Have you been to
Greece? (ever) 24. What time do you get up? (generally) 25. Where do you spend your summer holidays? (usually) 26. Did he come so late? (often) 27. When does she start working? (usually) 28. Do they quarrel with each other? (often) 29. Has your teacher mentioned this fact? (ever) 30. Must you get up so early? (always) Exercise 75. Put the verbs given in brackets in their proper places.
1. He has a lot of friends. (always) 2. You must follow the doctor’s advice. (always) 3. I can remember to do it in time. (never) 4. We have six lessons a day. (always) 5. I know what to speak to her about. (never) 6. You may take my things. (always) 7. I have my breakfast at 7 o’clock. (seldom) 8. I am glad to join you. (always) 9. Polly is ill. (often) 10. You can do it in time. (always) 11.
Old. Mr. Smith goes out. (seldom) 12. Is Olga in at this time of the day? (rarely) 13. Does her daughter-in-law visit her? (often) 14. Are you late? (never) 15. Does she stay at home? (usually) 16. Must you bring the dictionaries for the lessons? (always) 17. Does she introduce her friends to her parents? (always) 18. Does he come home so late? (often) 19. Do you have dinner at two o’clock? (usually) 20.
Does he smoke in bed? (ever) 21. Is he glad to see you? (always) 22. They go to work by bus. (seldom) 23. On Sundays people get up late. (usually) 24. Have you seen such a wonderful rainbow? (ever) Exercise 76. Put the adverbs in brackets in their proper places: 1. May I come to see you? (sometimes) 2. Do you go through the park? (sometimes) 3.
Tom is late for school. (often) 4. Maria goes to bed before midnight. (rarely) 5. Have you been here? (ever, before) 6. He isn’t late, but he was late last night. (generally, nearly) 7. Have you spoken to her about it? (ever) 8. If you have read this book you must remember these words. (ever) 9. I have seen him looking so red. (never) 10. When do you read newspapers? (usually) 11. He can remember his car registration number. (never) 12.
Her sister is horrible to her. (sometimes) 6. Adverbs of degree. Quite, quite a/ an, quite some and quite the. The meaning of quite depends on the kind of word it modifies. With adjectives and adverbs which are gradable quite means ‘less than the highest degree’, or it can mean ‘better than expected’. The lecture was quite good. However, with ungradable words (dead, perfect(ly), unique(ly), amazing(ly), astounding(ly)), quite
means ‘absolutely’ or ‘completely’: He plays quite amazingly. Not quite, roughly meaning ‘not completely’, is normally used with ungradable words only: Your answer is not quite right. And note: He’s quite better. (= He has completely recovered.) Quite a/an + countable noun suggests ‘noteworthy’: She is quite an expert on English Literature. Quite some + uncountable noun suggests ‘considerable’:
It’s quite some time since I saw him. Quite a/ an (or a quite) + adjective + noun is positive in its effect: It is quite a boring story/ a quite boring story. Quite the (= e.g. ‘certainly’) can combine with: superlatives: It’s quite the worst film I’ve ever seen. nouns: Wide lapels are quite the fashion this spring. Fairly. Fairly suggests ‘less than the highest degree’ and often combines with adjectives/ adverbs
that suggest a good state of affairs. It is less ‘complimentary’ than quite: The lecture was fairly good. He lectured fairly well. Fairly does not combine with comparatives. Compared with quite and rather, it combines with verbs in restricted contexts: You fairly drive me mad with your nagging. (= very nearly) A fairly combines with adjective + noun: He’s a fairly good speaker. (Less complimentary than quite
a/an) Rather, rather a/an and a rather. Rather can be stronger than quite and fairly and suggests ‘inclined to be’. It can combine with adjectives, which suggest a good state of affairs or a bad one. Rather combines with: - adjectives: This coat is getting rather old. - adverbs: He did rather badly in the competition. - some verbs: I rather like this dish. - comparatives: I earn rather more than his father.
Rather tends to combine with ‘negative’ adjectives: She is clever but rather lazy. With ‘positive’ adjectives, rather often suggests ‘surprisingly’: Your results are rather good – better than I expected. Rather a/an combines with a noun: His Dad is rather a bore. Rather a/an or a rather can precede adjective + noun:
It’s rather a sad story. = It’s a rather sad story. Much, far and a lot. Normally, much and far combine with comparative/superlative forms: much bigger, far better, far the best; and a lot combines with comparatives: a lot more expensive. Much can be used like very and any with a few positive forms such as good and beautiful. It is normally used a negative: I don’t think this book is much good.
A lot and far combine with different, but not with good: This edition is a lot/far different from the earlier one. Not much and a lot combine with verbs like like and enjoy: I don’t much like cabbage. I don’t like fish (very) much/a lot. Far combines with verbs like prefer and would rather:
I far prefer cycling to driving. A (little) bit, a little, somewhat. A bit (or a little bit), a little and somewhat combine with: - adjectives: It’s a bit/a little/somewhat expensive. - adverbs: He arrived a bit/ a little/ somewhat late. - comparatives: He is a bit/ a little/somewhat taller than Peter. - verbs:
I have turned up the oven a bit/a little/somewhat. Not a bit is often used for extra emphasis as a negative intensifier: She wasn’t even a bit upset when she heard about it. Enough and fairly. Enough and fairly shouldn’t be confused. Enough, as an adverb, follows an adjective or adverb and suggests ‘for some purpose’:
The water in the river is fairly warm. The water in the river is warm enough. Too, very and enough. Too goes before adjectives and adverbs. It conveys the idea of ‘excess’, ‘more than is necessary’, and shouldn’t be confused with the intensifier very, which doesn’t suggest excess. Too and enough point to a result: I came to the cinema too late. (I missed the train.)
I didn’t come to the cinema early enough. (I missed the train.) I didn’t come to the station too late. (I caught the train.) I came to the cinema early enough. (I caught the train.) Too can be modified by a bit, far, a little, a lot, much and rather: far too much work; a bit too difficult. Hardly, barely and scarcely. These adverbs are similar in meaning.
They can be used in front of: adjectives: This soup is hardly/barely/scarcely warm (enough). adverbs: She plays hardly/barely/scarcely well enough. Hardly and scarcely can be used with verbs: It might stop snowing, but I hardly/barely/scarcely think it likely. Barely combines with a smaller range of verbs: Jimmy barely knows his results yet. Hardly, barely and scarcely are negative words and do not combine with not or never.
They combine with ever and any: I’ve got so little time, I hardly ever read newspapers. There’s hardly any cheerful news in the papers. Hardly/barely/scarcely ever can be replaced by almost never: I almost never visit my friends these days. (=I hardly ever…) Nearly will not combine with never; we must use almost never.
We can say not nearly, but we cannot say ‘not almost’: There are not nearly enough members present to hold a meeting. Exercise 77. Choose the correct answer: 1. Thanks. There’s sugar in my coffee. (enough) 2. The car is big for all of us. (enough) 3. You can recognize him. (hardly) 4. They speak Greek well. (fairly) 5.
It’s funny, but he seems to be right again. (quite) 6. The child is young to walk. (too) 7. She is an experienced teacher. (quite) 8. The cat will come home today. (barely) 9. She came to the university early. (enough) 10. She learnt badly at school. (rather) 11. She is lazier than Tamara. (a bit) 12. This book is more interesting than that one. (far)
Intensifiers. How to identify intensifiers. Intensifiers are adverbs, which are used with gradable adjectives and adverbs and, in some cases, with verbs. While an adverb of degree normally weakens or limits the meaning of the word it modifies, an intensifier normally strengthens the meaning: Your answer is good. Your answer is very good. (Intensifier: meaning strengthened) Your answer is quite good. (Adverb of degree: meaning weakened)
Very. Very is the most common intensifier. It is used before: - adjectives: They are very ill. - adjective + noun: He is not a very nice person. - adverbs: It moves very slowly. Very on its own cannot go before comparatives, but very + much can: very much faster. Nor can it go before many predicative adjectives like alone except with much: She is very much alone. Combinations with not (not very good, not very well) are often used in preference
to positive forms (bad, ill) because they are sometimes more polite (Your work is not very good). Very can be used before gradable adjectival present participles (very interesting) and adjectival past participles (most ending in –ed, e.g. very interested and a few others, e.g. very mistaken). When past participles are used to form verb tenses, they can sometimes be preceded by much or very much: These developments have very much interested us. (Not ‘very’)
Very, (very) much, so, such a/an. Much, with or without very or so, can be used in mid-position: He is very much/so much/much admired in this country. Very much and so much (but never much on its own) can also go in the end position: I enjoy your party very much/so much. We can use the very before a superlative (the very best) but we must use very much or so much before a comparative (so much better).
The very can also combine with a few nouns (the very beginning). Very can be replaced by most before some adjectives describing personal feelings, attitudes (most obliged, most concerned). Such a/an + (adjective) + noun can be used in place of so + adjective: t was such a nice show! The show was so nice! Compare so … a/an in: It was so important an occasion, we couldn’t miss it.
So + adjective can replace very, informally, e.g. in exclamations: This new film is so good! For extra emphasis, very may be repeated: This new film is very very good. (Also: so very very good) Jolly, pretty and dead in place of very. Jolly and the weaker pretty can be used in (informal) BrE in place of very before adjectives or adverbs:
She is a jolly good player. The car is moving pretty slowly. Pretty can also combine with well to mean ‘nearly’: The film was pretty well over by the time we got to the cinema. Dead is used, usually informally, with a limited selection of adjectives (not adverbs): dead certain, dead drunk, dead level, dead quiet, dead right, dead straight, dead tired, dead wrong:
You’re dead right! The war in Europe did end on May 9, 1945. Indeed and not (…) at all. Very (but not so) can be intensified by indeed in affirmative sentences: That’s very good indeed. I enjoyed it very much indeed. At all (with or without very much) can be used in negatives: He doesn’t enjoy reading (very much) at all. –ly intensifiers used in place of very.
A few –ly adverbs such as extremely, particularly, really and (informally) awfully, frightfully, and terribly are commonly used for extra emphasis in place of very with: - adjectives: Miss B. is extremely helpful. - adverbs: He works really slowly. - past participles: I’m terribly confused by all this information. - ing-form adjectives: The information is terribly confusing. - adjective + noun:
He is a particularly good worker. Some –ly adverbs will combine with verbs: I really appreciate all you’ve done for me. Exercise 78. Put very much in its proper place: 1. Do you like the story? 2. I like a cup of hot tea at five o’clock. 3. I doubt that they have ever visited Greece. 4. She said that she was impressed by his progress.
5. They enjoyed themselves at the party. 6. She was disappointed to find out that the letter was lost. 7. Tamara regrets that she cannot take part in the discussion. 8. We were surprised to meet the two brothers there. 9. Would it matter if we arrive about five minutes later? 10. I can’t say that I like your idea. 11. I hope that you will be able to do it today.
12. He was surprised to hear that. Exercise 79. Choose between an adjective and an adverb: 1. The problem can be solved quite (simple, simply). 2. Olga certainly has done (good, well) in her studies this term. 3. We were (angry, angrily) at what he had done. 4. It isn’t (bad, badly). 5. He dreamed of acting (brave, bravely) in emergency.
6. This is quite (clear, clearly). 7. She looked at the boy (cold, coldly). 8. This is a (comfortable, comfortably) chair. 9. The child is (dangerous, dangerously) calm. 10. Let’s look at the problem from (different, differently) angles. 11. This definition is not quite (exact, exactly). 12. He seems to be not very (happy, happily) about it.
13. The girl was (heavy, heavily) painted. 14. He sighed (helpless, helplessly). 15. The work was done (perfect, perfectly). 16. Walk (quiet, quietly), or you will wake the baby. 17. Your botany is (sad, sadly) at fault. 18. You answered (satisfactory, satisfactorily). 19. Are you (serious, seriously) about doing this? 20. The task was quite (simple, simply). Exercise 80.
Choose between an adjective and an adverb: 1. It is not (good, well) for you to do this. 2. Do you (serious, seriously) wish to enter the University? 3. She rushed (angry, angrily) out of the room. 4. Tom behaved very (bad, badly) at table. 5. He is a (brave, bravely) boy. 6. We can see (clear, clearly) what he means. 7. The weather is (cold, coldly) today.
8. Every person likes to live (comfortable, comfortably). 9. This place is (dangerous, dangerously). 10. My husband and I always reacted (different, differently). 11. Can you tell me (exact, exactly) when it all happened? 12. She looked at them (sad, sadly). 13. The child smiled (happy, happily). 14. The suitcase is too (heavy, heavily). 15. He is quite (helpless, helplessly) with the child.
16. The weather was (perfect, perfectly) yesterday. 17. Her voice is too (quiet, quietly). 18. It is (sad, sadly) that you were out of town yesterday. 19. The answer was not (satisfactory, satisfactorily). 20. He worked (hard, hardly). Exercise 81. Choose between an adjective and an adverb; put it in its proper place: 1. It is difficult to speak to her. (pretty, prettily) 2.
They sell these coats. (dear, dearly) 3. We made sure it was safe before we went. (near, nearly) 4. I saw a plane in the sky. (high, highly) 5. We have heard very little of him. (late, lately) 6. You must work at your spelling. (hard, hardly) 7. We were late. (near, nearly) 8. The hall is decorated. (pretty, prettily) 9. I love my son. (dear, dearly) 10. The idea seems improbable. (high, highly) 11. He usually comes home after classes. (late, lately) 12.
I can understand what he is saying. (hard, hardly) 13. Do you want to go there? (real, really) 14. He attends classes. (regular, regularly) 15. I am satisfied. (complete, completely) FOCUS ADVERBS. The use of adverbs when ‘focusing’. Adverbs such as even, just, merely, only, really, simply can precede the word they qualify to focus attention on it. Others, like too and as well, focus our attention by
adding information. The position of ‘even’ and ‘only’. The position of some adverbs such as even and only is particularly flexible, conveying slightly different meanings according to where they are placed. a few examples are: Even Bob knows that 2+2=4. (i.e. although he’s stupid) Bob even knows that 2+2=4. (i.e. of the many things he knows)
Only Bob knows the answer. (i.e. nobody else does) Bob knows only half of it. (i.e. nothing else) Bob only met Olga. (i.e. no one else) The pre-verb position of even and only often leads to ambiguity. In the written language we can avoid ambiguity by putting these words before the words they qualify. In the spoken language, this is not necessary. We rely on stress and intonation:
I only asked him to give me his book. (i.e. not anything else) Other uses of ‘only’. Only + too, in the sense of ‘extremely’: I’m only too glad to be of help. Only before a verb in explanations and excuses: I don’t know why she’s so angry. I only left the window open. Too, as well, not…either and also. Too and as well usually go in the end position in the affirmative:
I like Bob and I like his wife, too/as well. In negative sentences these words are replaced by either: I don’t like Bob and I don’t like his wife, either. Also, used as a replacement for too and as well, is more common in writing than in speech. It comes: after auxiliaries: Mary is an engineer. She is also a mother. after the first verb when there is more than one:
She’s written some letters. She should also have posted them. before the main verb: I play tennis and I also play badminton. Note in the above example that also generally refers to the verb that follows it. Compare I, too, play badminton which refers to the subject (= My friend plays badminton and I play badminton, too/as well). The use of too, directly after the subject, is formal and the end position is generally preferred,
especially in informal speech. Like too and as well, also is not used in negative sentences and must be replaced by not …either. Exercise 82. Fill in the blanks with appropriate adverbs. Choose among those given in brackets. 1.“I’ve got that queer feeling,” he said, “that I used to have as a child, and I haven’t had for years. That all this has happened… .” – “I have it …,” said
Maria. “It comes …, like a ghost toughing you, and then it goes …, leaving you … sick.” (before, suddenly, often, again, rather) 2.I had breakfast …, and, feeling the need for fresh air and exercise, went … … afterwards. The wind had dropped … , but it was still … cold. (bitterly, out, early, directly, some what) 3.This business has shocked us all … much. We saw … a lot of the poor girl, you know. It seems … unbelievable. My father-in-law is … upset.
He was … fond of Ruby. (very, quite, terribly) 4.When I arrived … , which was … late, I was … surprised to find Mrs. Lloyd was still … . (greatly, home, there, fairly) INVERSION AFTER ADVERBS. Sometimes the normal subject-verb order in a sentence is reversed if a sentence begins with an adverb. Inversion after adverbs of place like here, there.
After here and there and after some particles such as back, down, off, up, etc. the noun subject comes after the verb. This is common with verbs of motion, such as come and go: Here comes a bus! There goes the last bus! (Note the progressive is not used here.) Down came the rain and up went the umbrellas. This kind of inversion is common after be when we are offering things or identifying locations (often with a plural subject):
Here’s a cup of coffee for you. (offer) Here’s your letters. (offering or indicating) There’s (stressed) Tom White. (identifying location) Inversion does not occur if the subject is a pronoun: Here it comes. There he goes. Down it went. Here you are. (offer) There she is. (identifying location) Inversions after adverbials of place.
After adverbials of place with verbs of position (e.g. lie, live, sit, stand) or motion (e.g. come go rise), the noun subject can follow the verb. This happens mainly in descriptive writing: At the top of the hill stood the tiny house. This inversion also occurs in the passive with other verbs: In the distance could be seen the white peaks of the mountains. Inversion does not occur if the subject is a pronoun:
At the top of the hill it stood out against the sky. Inversion after negative adverbs, etc. Certain adverbs, when used at the beginning of a sentence, must be followed by auxiliary verbs (be, do, have, can, must, etc.) + subject + the rest of the sentence. This kind of inversion, which may be used for particular emphasis, is typical of formal rhetoric and formal writing. It occurs after the following: negative or near-negative adverbs (often of time or frequency,
such as never, rarely, seldom); or adverbs having a negative effect - little, on no account: Never/seldom has there been so much protest against the Bomb. Little does he realize how important this report is. On no account must you accept any money if he offers it. combinations with only (e.g. only after, only then): The pilot reassured the passengers. Only then did
I realize how dangerous the situation had been. so + adjective (+ that) and such (+ that): So sudden was the attack (that) we had no time to escape. Such was his strength that he could bend iron bars. Exercise 83. Translate into English using inversion after adverbs: 1. Такой неожиданной была встреча, что мы не могли сразу найти слов.
2. Никогда не встречал такой красивой девушки! 3. Только тогда я поняла, что меня ужасно обманули. 4. Где-то вдалеке виднелись вершины гор, покрытые снегом. 5. Вон она идёт! 6. Такая была у него память, что многие завидовали. 7. Такой ужасной была погода, что мы все простыли.
8. Не осознал он, как много времени потрачено зря. 9. На подоконнике, в маленькой вазочке распустился чудесный цветок. 10. Так велико было его желание получить эту работу, что он не мог нормально есть. 11. Никогда не думал он об этом прежде. 12. Высоко в небе летела и звонко пела маленькая птичка. Revision Exercise 84. Choose between an adjective and an adverb:
1. She always greets us (warm, warmly). 2. I see it (clear, clearly). 3. It is (warm, warmly) today. 4. I can do it (easy, easily). 5. Don’t look so (cold, coldly) at me. 6. It is (easy, easily). 7. It is (cold, coldly) in the room. 8. Of course it is (good, well). 9. It is (correct, correctly). 10. You know it (good, well).
11. Spell the word (correct, correctly). 12. It is (clear, clearly). 13. He speaks German (good, well). 14. You look tired; you’ve been working (hard, hardly). 15. We’ve received a lot of mail (late, lately). 16. How are you? Are you (good, well). 17. She has (great, greatly) changed. I could (hard, hardly) recognize her. 18. It was a (late, lately) hour and he turned home.
19. I play chess but I’m not very (good, well) at it. 20. He came home (late, lately) when everybody was sleeping. 21. The wind blows (high, highly). 22. Sophie uses her car (mostly, most) for going to the shops. Exercise 85. Choose the proper word from brackets: 1. She looks (nice, nicely) in her new dress. 2. Everything is all right with the little girl; she
looks (gay, gaily) and (cheerful, cheerfully) again. 3. She looked (sad, sadly) at me and turned away. 4. What’s the matter with you? You look so (sad, sadly). 5. The girl looked (helpless, helplessly) about. 6. The woman looked (helpless, helplessly). 7. She looked (pleasant, pleasantly) and made everybody feel
at ease. 8. She looked (pleasant, pleasantly) at the little girl. 9. The girl looked (happy, happily) at her father, but the father looked (angry, angrily). 10. Father looked (stern, sternly) at me and I felt unhappy. 11. The car stopped (right, rightly) in the middle of the road. 12. Is your English (good, well)? 13. How many people were there at the (last, least) meeting?
14. I like your hat. It looks (good, well) on you. 15. Their son gives them the (last, least) trouble. 16. She feels (bad, badly) today. 17. The soup tastes (good, well). 18. She usually feels (lazy, lazily) in hot weather. 19. She cooks (bad, badly). 20. There was a (bright, brightly) fire in the room.
21. Does he speak (quiet, quietly)? 22. The table feels (smooth, smoothly). Exercise 86. Choose between an adjective and an adverb: 1. The birds flew (low, lowly), almost touching the water with their wings. 2. He is a (good, well) driver; he always drives very (careful, carefully). 3. (Most, mostly) students he is friendly with are from her place.
4. If she can jump that (high, highly) she’ll win the prize. 5. It’s (near, nearly) eleven o’clock. It’s time for you to go to bed. 6. Why are you walking so (slow, slowly)? What’s the matter? 7. We studied (hard, hardly) before the exam. 8. He looked (anxious, anxiously) around. 9. Are you (careful, carefully) while driving? 10.
My brother began in a (low, lowly) position at the bank. 11. The students with whom she studies are (most, mostly) from Belarus. 12. Few people are (high, highly) paid in this firm. 13. It was clever of him to make such a (near, nearly) translation. 14. They treated the boy (bad, badly) in their house.
15. When he began his journey he could (hard, hardly) crawl along. 16. She is very (slow, slowly) at understanding things. 17. I am very (anxious, anxiously) to leave as early as possible. 18. He has (regular, regularly) working hours. 19. The flower smells (pleasant, pleasantly). 20. The train goes (fast, fastly).
21. The meat tastes (bad, badly). 22. Is your brother an (excellent, excellently) painter? Exercise 87. Choose the right variant: 1. I’m getting on (nice, good, well) with people. 2. I saw a (well, good, best) film at the cinema last week. 3. She is much (higher, taller, more) than her sister. 4. He must stay in bed today. He feels (badly, well, bad).
5. Tom looks (happily, happy, unhappy). He has won the competition. 6. They laugh (happily, happy, unhappy). 7. No wonder she’s won the scholarship. She’s worked so (hardly, hard, hardy). 8. They must have (at all, at least, at last) one child. 9. He thinks the exams were dead (light, easy, easily). 10. (At all, at least, at last) we found the children in the wood.
11. He is pretty (well, best, good) at boxing, isn’t he? 12. I wanted to go to Greece, but in the end I went nowhere (at all, at least, at last). 13. Let’s stay inside. It’s (still, yet, already) raining. 14. I have not heard from my sister (late, lately, latest). 15. This car uses so much petrol you can (hardly, hard, nearly) afford to run it.
16. Her mother will be angry if she stays out (late, lately, latest). 17. Let me help you. The suitcase is too (heavy, difficult, hard) for you to carry. 18. Have you heard the (late, lately, latest) news? 19 The Urals are not so (tall, long, high) as the Alps. 20. I’ve started to learn Greek. But I haven’t got very far (still, yet, already).
21. He convinced us of the need for (difficult, heavy, hard) work. 22. At ten o’clock this morning Tom was (yet, still, already) in bed. Exercise 88. Translate into English: 1. Она чуть не опоздала на поезд. 2. Этот способ широко применялся в промышленности несколько лет назад. 3. Они недавно вернулись из командировки. 4. Сегодня довольно-таки жарко.
5. Подождите немного, она скоро придёт. 6. Дверь была широко открыта, и им было хорошо видно, что делается внутри. 7. Его прервали в самой середине речи. 8. Чем раньше вы закончите работу, тем раньше вы уйдёте домой. 9. Книга была настолько увлекательной, что я зачиталась до глубокой ночи. 10. Свет был очень плохой, приходилось подносить газету близко к глазам. 11. Они благополучно добрались до дома, хотя было очень темно.
12. Я вас правильно поняла? 13. Она справедливо считается самой лучшей ученицей. 14. Чем больше я её слушаю, тем меньше она мне нравится.
Как писать рефераты
Практические рекомендации по написанию студенческих рефератов.
|!||План реферата Краткий список разделов, отражающий структура и порядок работы над будующим рефератом.|
|!||Введение реферата Вводная часть работы, в которой отражается цель и обозначается список задач.|
|!||Заключение реферата В заключении подводятся итоги, описывается была ли достигнута поставленная цель, каковы результаты.|
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